Landscapes of Power, Resistance of Violence

Rise of tuition fees for students, and how they have reacted with protests and in some cases violence on the streets outside of parliament

Students have protested against a rise of their tuition fees by the government. Example 2010 United Kingdom student protests followed with demonstrations in many areas of the country during November and December 2010. The students concentrated their protests in central London where each student opposed the planned spending cuts for furthering education and increase of their tuition fees by Conservative-Liberal Democratic coalition government that had recently reviewed funds allocated to higher distance learning. The students argued that the cuts were excessive and that they would destroy higher education. Moreover, students would be overburdened with higher debts and politicians will break their promises. Student campaign against fees led to a mass walkout and demonstrations, which attacked party headquarters. Such protests result in injuries and deaths of participants.

Participant observation and interviewing students in coffee shops or simply at their own home. 

Researchers conduct a study on reasons that led to such protests by participative observing them as they demonstrate near parliament buildings, interviewing them in coffee shops and in their homes. The above combination of sites is best considered since, observation helps in gathering first hand information as students shout and air their grievances. Interviews near coffee shops are conducted among a group of students and assist in getting many ideas and explanations as well as suggestions on the arising issues in their universities. However, there are no concrete ideas taken from the group. Clarity of ideas given is taken from home interviews where a researcher interviews a student independently and gets personal ideas. Home interviews retrieve personal ideas and reflections on the strikes.

Processes of accessing a site and dangers involved

While accessing a site, visitors are supposed to follow rules and regulations from the places they are visiting. In this case, the government area is a site with its own rules, which must be fulfilled before permission is granted to visitors. The rules include prior approval of the Access through application forms obtained as hard copies or through online applications. Authorization forms applied should have a clear description of works to be done to the site and attached work permit to access the site. Works must be done as outlined in the permit wile following site rules. Visitors must wear protective garments all times when in the site and consider specific requirements of the site. In addition, the site must be kept clean and left clean. The departure time must be followed and notified to the authority (Work safe Victoria, 2008).

Dangers involved

The proposed site of visitation is the parliament site where actual demonstrations took place. Researchers are exposed to dangers such as electrical hazards from hanging overhead power lines, live circuits in panels and loose cords and tools. Risks of falling objects as people shift materials, rolling materials and loads that were unsecured as well as flying objects. Heavy traffic and equipment poses a great challenge to people on the site (46C5-HT, 2009). The researchers are caught in between moving traffic and loads disconnected from their original locations. In parliament locations there might be falling window panes and doors destroyed by the striking students. Stones and materials maybe thrown and hit the attackers. Sum of injuries and fatalities from the site are many. They include sliding and falling, injuries as one runs from the irate mob and confusion on which routes to follow and exit the area. Some parts are unguarded making equipment to roll over. Risks of unprotected holes, edges and sides as well as improperly constructed walkways. The most common danger in these sites is electrocution from live wires left on the surface.

PART 2

Galtung, J. (2000). Conflict transformation by peaceful means. (The transcend method). Transcend manual, 1-178.

Galtung (2000) argues that conflict is a total of attitude plus behavior plus contradiction. Conflict lifecycle has three phases, before violence, during violence and after violence. Conflicts are emotional initially, become violent in their climax and then taper off and disappear. They may also reappear after some time. Conflicts arise when goals are incompatible, when goals are unrealized. Unrealized goals cause frustration that leads to aggression that brings hatred attitudes. Hatred and violence arises from goal holders although they may not be rational. Violence arising from conflicts harm and hurt participants and ones involved. It results in counter violence and meta-conflicts.

Conflicts are caused by failures to transform emerging conflicts. They have roots in violent cultures that aim at justifying violence through exploitation, alienation, and repression. Conflicting cultures may keep together those who wish to be far apart and separate people who want to be close. Violent actors may have a goal of gaining power or show prowess. Conflicts also aim at building personal identities and gaining power. Galtung (2000) argues that conflicts are handled by making peaceful structures, cultures, and regions to handle conflicts without violence. Peaceful cultures have a tradition of human rights and democratic tradition. Peaceful cultures fit in western nations, which lay special emphasis on individualism attributes such as individual rights, minds, and voting power. However, peaceful cultures are least expressed in collectivism people with a focus on clans, tribes and nations.

Actors of peace include more women, ads on religion, intellectuals, and merchant traditions. Warrior traditions have less expressions of peace. Galtung (2000) postulates that structural violence is worse than direct violence since people lead miserable lives due to political repression, economical exploitation, and deprivation of freedom to get near to whom they belong to or get away from their oppressors. Direct violence is a late warning of existing conditions such as culture and structural that is unbearable. Although import substitution reduces deficits, they end up becoming more resources for others and least resources for another group. As a result, it becomes an area of conflict.

Galtung (2000) argues that development is the process of building conflict transformation capacity. Structural violence is reduced through education, demysfying and deglorifying violence and training people on methods of handling conflicts through empathy and creativity. Moreover, structural violence is reduced through conventions of human rights against repression of civil and political rights and avoiding exploitation of economic, cultural, and social rights.

To get a peaceful economic development, three phases are involved. Phase 1 includes resolution, reconstruction, and reconciliation. The process explains that people should not wait for violence to strike or end but it aims at avoiding its eruption through providing solutions to problems in time.

Violence strikes when some issues are left unattended without proper instructions and creativity to enforce an outcome or get people from frustration. Moreover, conflicts arise when the culture justifies transition from conflict to meta-conflict as opportunities of wining and gaining honor. Conflicts destroy hardware, software, people, and weapons. People defeat conflicts through predicting similar outcomes.

After violence

People rejoice after violence is over however they are left to suffer long lasting consequences of trauma and desire for revenge. There are additional tasks of reconstructing, rehabilitating wounds, rebuilding after damage of materials and reconciliation. Tasks engaged are rehabilitation through collective sorrow and trauma approach. Rebuilding through developmental approach, restructuration through peace structure approach and enculturation through peace culture approach are means of solving conflicts.

Conflict outcomes and processes

The expected outcomes from a conflict are for one party to prevail, second withdrawal from the conflicts and compromise with situation by attacking it. The fifth option is to transcend the situation by using creativity to create compatibility to what was incompatible.

Conflicts theory argues that resolution options solve the root cause of the problem, reconstruction repairs damages caused by violent acts and reconciliation solves meta-conflicts that are existing. Violence has two options of additional glory and revenge producing worse cultures. It polarizes cultures through extra repression, exploitation, and sustaining wars.

Creativity ends conflicts

Creativity is an option used to end wars and conflicts by authority. It involves identification of the closed or blocked phenomena. Secondly, identifying constant parameter, changing the parameter through experimentation and establishing hypothesis to unblock the phenomenon. Further, testing the hypothesis in the real world to get its functionality.

George, A. & Harris, B. (2014). Landscapes of violence: Women surviving family violence in regional and rural Victoria. Deakin university, 1-217.

George and Harris (2014) use in-depth qualitative interviews with thirty women from Victoria region, twenty-four family violence workers, and nineteen lawyers. They also included three magistrates in the survey. The study identified that most females are homeless due to family violence and domestic violence in particular. Violence is rampant and has caused health problems among women and decline of economic costs. Women rarely identify that violence is a form of abuse of their rights making them reluctant to seek support or report it to authority such as police. Moreover, children are mostly affected by family violence with a percentage of 82 in incidents reported to Victoria. Family violence incidents approximate to 60,829 in 2012-2013, which was an increase by 21.6%; reluctant to report to the police comes from inconvenience, resistance to prosecute offenders, additional conflicts eith perpetrators, as well as negative consequences to the family and financial status. Women living in rural areas are at a higher risk of domestic violence than ones staying in metropolitan areas of Western Australia are. Rural women have fewer reports of violence than women living in metropolitan areas do.

Family violence causes disabilities, illnesses, and death. Long-term consequences are trauma, lasting physical injuries, physical and emotional tolls, anxiety, and depression. Survivors of violence engage in suicide, alcoholism, and abuse of substances. Children affected by family violence suffer from difficulties in schools, social interactions, and employment. They remain vulnerable to drug abuse and alcoholism. Family violence is a cycle, which starts during childhood and continues to adulthood.

Recommendations to domestic violence involve creation of domestic violence policy and practical directives for prosecutors and police investigations. Availing of a domestic violence investigation guide accredited by quality assurance program (QA), and a guide into police records that allow access of jurisdictions. Second, availing a domestic violence helpline to offer support and consultation to police officers in diverse communities. In addition, the justice system officials should establish collaborative best practices.

Definitions of domestic violence should be offered to families and vulnerable children and women. Information sharing protocols should be identified among high-risk groups. There should be assessments of children and women at risk of domestic violence. Family violence is solved by focusing on mental health, parental skills, and supportive services. Moreover, programs should be offered to victims on altering violent behavior and establishing healthy relationships. There should be efforts to address fundamental sources of conflict, violence and stress recurring in families with an aim of offering support services and other interventions.

George and Harris (2014) conclude that family violence is on the increase to families. Thus, there should be urgencies while attending victims of family violence. There should be valid solutions to victims of women such as child maltreatment reporting systems, reserved shelters for battered women. Abuse interventions include identification of the case, investigating on it and outlining services for prevention. Primary intervention services are aimed at deterring family violence, improving settings in criminal justice, and avoiding effects of health. Domestic violence interventions treat victims and offenders and prevent future violent acts. Victims chronically affected are sent for referrals to enhance their participation in the society. Domestic violence is reduced among children through offering secondary interventions such as mental health clinics and taken to children care centers.

 

References

George, A. & Harris, B. (2014). Landscapes of violence: Women surviving family violence in       regional and rural Victoria. Deakin university, 1-217.

Galtung, J. (2000). Conflict transformation by peaceful means. (The transcend method).    Transcend manual, 1-178.

46C5-HT (2009).Safety training for the focus four hazards in the construction industry.    Occupational safety and health Administration, U. S. department of labor, 1-128.

Work safe Victoria. (2008). Site security and public access onto housing construction sites. OH & S guidance for house builders ,1-3.