How is the effectiveness of the Government Strategies in reducing teenage pregnancy in England from 2009-2013?

Achievement of Assessment

Your proposal identifies a researchable question which focuses on an important health issue. A concise rationale supported by relevant literature is presented which sets out why carrying this research is important. The aim and objectives are clearly presented although it is not clear why these have been presented twice. You also present a clearly described the literature search strategy and set out ethical and data management issues and identify how these will be addressed.

Area for improvement

The discussion of the research design needs to make clearer your understanding of the distinction between primary and secondary research. Your justification for the method chosen also requires more detail. The discussion of the sampling method also requires clarification. The section addressing bias and reflection would also benefit from being expanded to provide A more detailed discussion.

Further Comments

You need to avoid the tendency to repeat points. This would allow you to explore other aspects in more detail. You should also take care to ensure that statistical data is presented clearly e.g. you suggest on page 3 that teenage pregnancies went down by 13% between 2000 and 2010 but that 9.5% of that reduction occurred between 2009 and 2010.


This research proposal will explore the effectiveness of the Government strategies in reducing teenage pregnancy in England. The research will also consider the wellbeing of teenage mother and children.

Background and Rationale

In 1999, the government published a report on teenage pregnancy through the Social Exclusion Unit (SEU). The report addressed the problem in the context of England, rather the UK in general. The focus of the report was in addressing the problem of teenage girls by developing a 10-year plan of action. The strategy aimed at reducing teenage pregnancies by half. It also proposed mechanisms for combating problems of social exclusion for the vulnerable groups.

In 1999, the Government’s Social Exclusion Unit (SEU) published a report on Teenage Pregnancy (SEU). This has covered England and established a program to develop an integrated strategy for the reduction of teenage pregnancies. In addition, the strategy is to reach the European average. Further, the strategy focuses on minimising risk vulnerable teenage parents and their children.

Although the government has put in place to deal with the problem of teenage pregnancies in England, there has not been much reduction. According to Roberts (2012), teenage pregnancies have gone down by 13%, while the governments’ strategy was aimed at achieving a 50% reduction. This shows a discrepancy between the objectives set by the governments and the reality on the ground.

There are various challenges that teenage pregnancies pose to the affected girls, their families, and the government (JRF, 1995; Botting, Rosato and Wood, 1998; Biehal, 1995). These can be summarized as depression, lack of education, socail exclusion, and domestic violence, lack of employment, poor housing, and strained relationships, among others (Kiernan, 1995; FPA, 2010). There is also a strong economic support for minimising cases of teenage pregnancies. The economy suffers more since the as government must deal with the challenge of housing and economic strain on healthcare sector. Statistics show that for every £1 spent on pregnancy prevention/contraception saves £11 in health plus welfare costs (McGuire A. et al. (1995). These are huge costs, which can be brought down if teenage pregnancies can be controlled. Indeed, any effort put in place by the government can go a long way in improving the overall well-being of girls as well as help in minimising the strain on national budget (Department of Education, 2010).

Therefore, based on the facts on the ground, it is evident that the problem is not being addressed effectively. Therefore, this study will be significant in various ways. First, by reviewing the available literature on the study, the researcher will be able to understand the extent to which the government has gone in dealing with the problem of teenage pregnancies in England (Avery and Lazdane, 2006). Secondly, the study will also assist in understanding the causes of teenage pregnancies and the related problems (FPA, 2010). In addition, the study will help the government to deal with the problem by reviewing their strategies and developing appropriate interventions to bring down the prevalence of teenage pregnancies in Britain (Carabine, 2000).

Aims and objectives

This study aims at assessing the effectiveness of the Government Strategies for reducing teenage pregnancy in England between 2000-2013. To do so, the researcher adopts the following objectives to guide the study

  • To explore the implication of teenage pregnancy on affected teenage health and wellbeing in England;
  • To understand the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in England;
  • To assess the effectiveness of strategies in reducing teenage pregnancy in England

In addition, the following questions are proposed to aid in gathering the right information for this study

  • What is the implication of teenage pregnancy on affected teenage health and wellbeing in England?
  • What is the prevalence of teenage pregnancy in England?
  • How effective are the strategies set out by the government in reducing teenage pregnancy in England?

Methods and justification

This section highlights the proposed method of study, sampling process, data collection methods, as well as the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Primary and secondary methods will be used for collection of data in this study. The primary methods will help the researcher in collecting much information on the topic while secondary methods will be used to relate the findings with the relevant literature.

Research Design

The researcher proposes to use qualitative research method in analysing the issue under investigation. Interviews, focus groups, case studies, observations will be used as the methods of data collection. Secondary sources which include thematic analysis of literature will also be used as a method of data collection.

Sample and Sampling Procedure

Random sampling will be used. This means that each participant will be chosen randomly and will have equal chance of participating in the study. The sample will consist of 50 respondents that will include people from the department of health, parents of pregnant teenager, as well as teenagers.

Random sampling will be used to help eliminate the problem of selecting a participant more than once. This will help eliminate bias in the sample. The implication of this is that an unbiased sample would be an adequate representation of the entire population. The random sampling method that will be used for the study is convenient sampling. This will ensure the researcher does not waste a lot of time in the field chasing people who are not easily available. However, this sampling method can be associated with bias (Creswell, 1998; Bougie & Sekaran, 2010). The researcher will use a random sample of those identified to be part of the final study in an attempt to minimize the sampling bias. Indeed, convenience sampling is the weakest for of sampling. However, it is the most commonly used method in most studies (Polit and Beck, 2013).

Research Instruments

The researcher will use a self-administered questionnaire for this study (Polit and Beck, 2013). The advantages of using questionnaires include less cost, especially if the participants are in geographically dispersed areas. In addition, the questionnaire adds the element of anonymity in the research process. This can be helpful in understanding some form of behaviour or traits (Polit and Beck, 2013; Bryman, 2008). However, questionnaire can have some limitations as people might give misleading answers. To overcome this problem, the research will also use focused interviews to try to gain some more information (Polit and Beck, 2013; Creswell, 1998).

Sources of Secondary Data

The major sources of secondary data for this study will include books, periodicals government publications, statistical abstracts, databases, the media, annual reports of companies, case studies and other archival records (Steward, 1998; Bryman, 2008). In addition, the researcher will also use the internet, which is an easy platform for getting information. However, the internet might lack some of the most important information. I addition, some webpages might not be easy to access, as they might require authorisation. Despite this, the researcher will use a combination of sources to get as many sources as possible (Polit and Beck 2013; Kothari, 2006).

The Literature Search Strategy

The search for the right literature to use for any study can be problematic. However, with the right search strategy, it will be possible for the researcher to get the right sources and with minimum time (Creswell, 1998). Therefore, the researcher will use the following strategy in getting secondary sources of data.

Several websites such as MEDLINE, ASSIA, RCN, the Department of Health website, Google Scholar will be used to search for the literature on the subject. In order to get the right material, the researcher will use several search term. These will include ‘Social Exclusion Unit strategy’ teenage pregnancy domestic violence and teenage pregnancies’, and Teenage pregnancies in England.’ In addition, the researcher will refine the search by using a combination of the terminologies in the search strategy. Further, the researcher proposes a set of criteria for the inclusion as well as the exclusion of the literature for the purpose of this study.

The Inclusion Criteria

The following information will help identify literature for this study

  • Articles on teenage pregnancies that can be found in peer reviewed journals or books
  • Literature that focuses on the Government strategies to deal with teenage pregnancies
  • Literature that deals with community initiatives to deal with teenage pregnancies in England
  • Articles and studies that observed ethical protocol in doing studies related to teenage pregnancies in England or UK
  • Government reports and websites
  • Sources not older than 1990

Exclusion Criteria

Literature that has either of the following characteristics will not be considered for review.

  • Any literature, though relevant to the problem under study, is not available in English language
  • Sources, though dealing with the problem, but in other countries or contexts
  • Any literature that did not follow an ethical procedure in its study
  • Any literature published before the 1990s.

Ethical Aspects of the Study

It is important that researchers consider ethics in conducting their studies. Various protocols have bee identified by various researchers and governments over the years. The researcher will try to be as ethical as possible in gathering data from the participants (Polit and Beck 2013). First, before any one agrees to become part of the study, they will be expected to sign a consent form. This information will be contained in the information sheet that the researcher will develop. The information sheet will highlight all the processes of the data collection methods for the participants to know (Bryman, 2008). The sheet will highlight the fact that the participants are expected to volunteer to take part in the study. No element of coercion of persuasion will be used to solicit for participation. In addition, the researcher will inform the participants about their right to continue or withdraw from the study without any consequences (Polit and Beck 2013). The researcher will also be ready to offer any information to the participants before they agree to become part of the study. Finally, the researcher will ensure that no harm will come to the participants in any form. In case such harm is anticipated, the participants will be notified as soon as possible and the relevant authorities notified. Further, the researcher will notify the relevant authorities about the study and the intended outcomes.

Data Management and Protection

The protection of the identity as well as the data generated from the filed will be of much concern to the researcher (Polit and Beck 2013). Therefore, the researcher will ensure data is kept in a safe mode and out of reach of unintended persons. In addition, the researcher will assure those who take part in the study about the confidentiality of the information provided. The researcher will assure participants that access to the data will be restricted. There will be no sharing of the data with third parties whatsoever (BERA, 2011).

Research Time Table

Target Action Time Frame
Preparation and submission of the research proposal 1 May 15 May 2014
Review Search 1 May 20May 2014
Search for research articles May 18th -20th
Development of the research questionnaire May 20th– 23th
Issuance of the questionnaire May 25-May 27
Analysis of the results May 28-31 May 2014
Start writing the Project 1stJune- 14 June 2014
Submission of the Project July 2014


Bias and Reflection

Researchers are human and can be subjective in the collection of data. In addition, they might be prone to disclosing information concerning participants (Polit and Beck 2013). Further, bias might come because of the researchers’ commitment to the area of knowledge and their desire to conduct a rigours study (Polit and Beck 2013). To avoid any possibility of bias, the researcher will engage an independent reviewer to analyse the instruments and the research approach undertaken by the researcher. This will ensure that any possible bias is minimized (Polit and Beck, 2013).

By taking part in the development of this proposal, I feel that I have acquired valuable insights on how researches are conducted (Gibbs, 1988). First, the selection of the right sources of literature as well as the best approach presented a big headache. Consultations with those who have previously done proposals in addition to searching literature on how to write a research proposal were critical in the writing process. On analysis, I believe that all these efforts were helpful and have helped me use less time in knowing what should be done at each stage. These insights will continue to guide me through the research and writing of the final report (Gibbs, 1988).


In conclusion, I feel that the research proposal writing went on well. Through the development of the proposal, I made many enquiries and I got enough support as I required. However, I should have consulted more sources, especially peer reviewed journals for the study. In this proposal, only one journal was used. In future, I will try to consult at least 10 journals, and less websites.

References List

Avery, L. and Lazdane G. (2006). What do we know about sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in Europe? European Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care, 13(1):58–70.

BERA. (2011). Ethical guidelines for educational research, [online]; Available at, [Accessed 11 May 2014].

Biehal, N. (1995). Moving on. London: National Children’s Bureau.

Botting, B., Rosato, M. and Wood, R. (1998). Teenage mothers and the health of their children. ONS Population Trends93: 19-28

Bougie, R & Sekaran, U. (2010). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach, London: John Wiley and Sons.

Bryman, A. (2008) Social research methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Carabine, J. (2000) Constituting welfare subjects through discourses of sexuality and social policy, in Rethinking Social Policy, eds G. Lewis, S. Dewirtz and J. Clarke, London, Sage

Creswell, J.W. (1998) Qualitative inquiry and research design: choosing among five approaches. London. Sage

Department for Education and Employment (2000) Sex and relationship education guidance [online] Available at: http:/ / [Assessed 10 May 2014]

Department of Education. (2010). Teenagers pregnancy strategy: beyond 2010, [online] Available at, [Accessed 7 May 2014].

FPA. (2010). Teenage pregnancy factsheet, [online]; Available at, [Accessed 7 May 2014]

Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by doing: a guide to teaching and learning methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit

Health Action Tyne and Wear (2001) Child Health Information Development, [online]; available at;, [assessed 8 May 2014].

Joseph Rowntree Foundation (1995). Social background and post-birth experiences of young parents. London: JRF.

Kiernan, K. (1995). Transition to parenthood: young mothers, young fathers – associated factors and later life experiences. LSE Discussion paper WSP/113.

Kothari, C. R. (2006). Research methodology: methods and techniques, New Delhi: New Age International.

McGuire A and Hughes D. (1995). The economics of family planning services London: FPA.

Polit, D. F. and Beck, C. T. (2013). Essentials of Nursing Research: Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, London: Wolters Kluwer Health.



Example to follow:


Research Proposal

 Teenage Pregnancy in England

  1. Research question


How effective are government strategies in reducing teenage pregnancy in England from 1999-2010?


  1. Introduction

This research proposal will address the socioeconomic factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy, examine the effectiveness of strategies and policy used in reducing teenage pregnancy within England. Also, the study will look the health and well-being of teenage mothers and their children.

Teenage pregnancy has been at the centre of media attention and a cause of concern for the government in the last decades.

Young mothers have to face great challenges affecting their health. In addition, adverse social outcomes push teenage mothers to long-term poverty (Department of Health, 2010). Data from the British Household Panel Survey 1991-2001 showed that mother teenagers have long-term social constraints because they are less likely to marry the father of the first child. Also, teenager mothers have hard time to find a new partner or engage in long-term relationships. They can become unemployed, gain lower salaries and have less probability to buy a home. In addition, the life of teenage mothers is disrupted, and they have to postpone education, employment and lose valuable work experience. Furthermore, mother and baby have poor health, which have long-term consequences (Ermish, 2003).


  • Background

In 1999, the government program “Teenage Pregnancy Strategy” was launched to reduce the rates of teenage pregnancy and decrease the long-term social and health problems (NHS). Several studies showed that a high rate of teen pregnancy in ethnic minorities is linked to poverty, deprivation and lower education (Kenney, et al. 1997).

The problem of teenage pregnancy on ethnic minorities are complex because depend of cultural background, traditions and religion affiliation. The British government has made a huge contribution to reduce teenage pregnancy by introducing in 1999 the ten-year national “Teenage Pregnancy Strategy”. The program was successful because it was obtained a steady decrease of teenage conceptions under 18 years old. Teenage pregnancy decreased 13.3% after the implementation of the program (the National Archives). According to the Office for National Statistics, conceptions in under-18s fell to 34,633 in 2010 compared with 38,259 in 2009, a drop of 9.5%. Teenage pregnancy rate was deepest in UK since 1969 (Denisson, 2004). The decrease of teenage pregnancy was observed in all areas, including areas of high poverty and deprivation.

One of the factors that contributed to the decrease of teenage pregnancy was the support and advice on relationship and sexual health. The government supported and encouraged all parents to get involved in sexual education, employment and training to reduce the risk of long-term social exclusion. This strategy was increased to 60% by 2010 for family who agreed to be involved in their children education (Denisson, 2004). The “Teenage Pregnancy Strategy”policy achieved to support young mothers to have good experience and keep children safe. The program was successful to changes the society views about sexual education and relationship, and promoting an open and honest communication about sex and relationships. Also, there was a change on the services provided because the conjoint work at the government, local and professional level (Department of Health, 2010)

However, one of the barriers for better outcome is misconception and myths about fertility, lack of knowledge about contraceptive methods and abortion. Another barrier is the lack of support of teenagers from parents, school and children’s workforce to advice and talk more openly about sexual health and relationships (Department of Health, 2010). Furthermore, it has been showed that only applying the traditional approach of sexual education was not effective to solve this problem. The main drawback of sexual education was related to the methodology of course delivered by teachers (Henderson, 2007). It is important a regular and continue education on high quality relationships by qualified professionals in order to build knowledge and skills in young people (Hadley and Evans 2013). Harden, et al. (2009) investigated teenage pregnancy on socioeconomic disadvantage population, and find that teenager dislike school, have unhappy childhood and have lower expectation for the future. Early intervention was an important factor to decrease teenage pregnancy, as well learning support, youth programs, social support and work experience.


  • Rationale

The reason for choosing this topic was the major risks on health and well-being of young female mothers and their babies including long-term socio-economic effects.

England had the highest rates of teenage pregnancy between 15 to 19 years than any other country in Europe (Kmietowicz, 2002, Lawlor and Shaw, 2004). In 2001, the rate of teenage pregnancy in the UK was 30.8 births per 1000 women below 20 years (UNICEF, 2001). One factor of high teenage pregnancy is attributed to a modern society that is more sexualized and moved away from traditional family values. Actually, teenagers are more disposed to early sexual activity (Kmietowicz, 2002; Wellings and Kane, 1999). A high percentage of teenage pregnancies are unplanned and about 50% of pregnancies end in abortion (Department of Health, 2010; Hadley and Evans 2013).

According to Stanley and Swierzewski (2000) children born to teenage mothers have low birth-weight, are undernourished, abused and neglected. Teenage mothers have poor healthy diet and do not follow the prenatal care appropriately; teenage pregnancy is associated with poverty and low income for mothers. As a result, these teenage mothers will depend on government support and will have low education. Also, young mothers can increase alcohol consumption that affects their health (Public Health England 2010).

The government has set strategy to reduce teenage pregnancy in England because the high cost involved in health and social care, as well prevent the increase of poverty as teenagers are tomorrow’s future (Stanley and Swierzewski, 2000). A study conducted by Carabine (2007) stated that the policy of 1999 reduced the rate of teenage pregnancy rate and sexually transmitted diseases. Young people have with access to contraception and sex education in school, and encourage parent to be involved with teaching their children about sexuality and relationships.


  • Aims

The aim of this research proposal is to explore the effectiveness of the government strategies in reducing teenage pregnancy in England since the launch of the “Teenage Pregnancy Strategy” program in 1991 (Department of Health, 2010).


  • Objectives

This project is based on the following objectives:


  • To examine how effective are teenage pregnancy prevention initiatives in England.
  • To explore how effective are strategies in reducing teenage pregnancy in England.
  • To investigate the effectiveness of teenage pregnancy.
  1. Methods
    • Literature search strategy

A systematic approach will be used in this study to identifying, analyze, assess and interpret primary published literature articles related to teen pregnancy. A systematic review is the process that an investigator critically assesses the most detailed evidence available in an attempt to blend what is known and not known about the efficiency of a specific intervention (Aveyard, 2010). Also, the research process will be based on secondary research for the reason that it helps increase the understanding of the problem, the period of the time saving, deliver a bias for judgment and data collected by the researcher (Bryman and Teevan 2005).  The research proposal will be focusing on qualitative research as it is typically associated with the positivist/ post positivist paradigm (objectivity, avoidance of researcher presence, behavior or attitude affecting the results, representative samples, and control of external factors


The literature search will include scientific social studies, basic science studies, about teenage pregnancy. More importance will be given to research papers on social studies. Also, it will be considered information that can be found in the internet to better assess the key issues, strategies policy and well-being mother and children. The literature search will be carried out using digital databases including British Nursing index (BNI), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Embase, Sociological Abstracts (SocAbs) and University electronic sources. The keywords used to search for relevant articles include: teenager, pregnancy, policy, ethnicity, poverty, diseases.

The inclusive criteria include primary research, English language, articles published after 1996 relevant to the subject. The exclusion criteria are based on irrelevant secondary research, foreign language and articles published before 1996. Straightforward and clear inclusive and exclusive criteria assist in focusing on the review and help to avoid data that are not relevant to the study (Aveyard 2010).


  • Data collection

Qualitative data will be collected and then converting the data into numerical form for statistical analysis to drawn conclusion. The statistical analysis enables researchers to determine to what extent there is a relationship between two or more variables, and determines the size of the sample chosen (Bryman and Teevan 2005).

Prior to the study, socio-demographic information of participants will be collected such as gender, age, education, employment, and income. Information about pregnancy will be collected such as date of first pregnancy and status of pregnancy. Also, information about the ethnic background of participants and parents will be collected.

The collection of data will include a base-line survey and focus groups. The base-line survey will be given at the beginning of the study, and then after the conclusion of the study. The surveys will be administered using the free survey hosting “Smart Survey” (Smart Survey). The survey will consist in questions to identify the socioeconomic condition of teenagers, parenteral monitoring, and school attendance, how they feel or react to the “Teenage Pregnancy Strategy” policy, the main problems they have to access government resources, sexual education and positive outcomes. The Focus Group will be done once every month for 3 months for 45 min each session. Focus group discussions will be recorded for transcription and accuracy. Participants with a similar ethnic background will be organized. Focus groups will be held in a community center where participants can feel comfortable.


  • Sampling

The participants will be recruited from different boroughs in London. The total number of participants for this study will be 50 (n=50). The inclusion criteria include age, pregnancy history, and number of pregnancies, race, and poverty level.


  • Data analysis

Data analysis of data of the Focus Group will be conducted qualitatively. The data of Focus Group will be categorized into common themes for open ended questions. The transcripts will be reading and re-reading several times and focus on the data as presented. A reflexive dairy will be keep to annotate some interpretations or analysis of transcripts. Emerged themes will be identified during the readings that involved interesting responses from the participants. Then, themes will be connected and established cluster of themes and concepts (Onwuegbuzie, 2009).


  1. Ethical aspects

The study will be permed after the approval from the Review Board. Informed consent forms will be distributed to participants. Volunteers will be informed about the nature of the study and risk involved. However, this study does not involve any risk for participants or investigators.


  1. Data management and protection

Anonymity and privacy of participants will be protected and respected. Care will be taken to handle sensitive information of participants. The identity of participants will be protected using a false name. All documentation will be stored in a safe place until findings will be analyzed.


  1. Research time plan

The project will take 7 months to complete. The first month will be consecrated to recruit the volunteers. Four months will be used for data collection including survey questions and Focus Group. The final two months will be allotted for data analysis.




  1. Bias and Reflection

The objectivity of the study will be maintained during the whole study. The collection and data analysis will be done having in account the scientific studies to lower the bias that can arise. The emphases on reflective analysis will to prevent bias is important because people tend to realize bias in other people rather than themselves (Kruger and Gilovich, 1999). During the analysis of transcripts, we will read and re-read several times being careful not to be critic or judgmental, and focus on the data as presented without bias.


Reflection: please help me to write a reflection according to this research, for example during the time of the research what was the difficulty, the weaknesses, how you did it


  1. Conclusions

Teenage pregnancy in the UK is one of the highest in Europe (Kmietowicz, 2002, Lawlor and Shaw, 2004). To decrease the rates of teenage pregnancy, the British government launched the ten-year program “Teenage Pregnancy Strategy” to reduce the rates of teenage pregnancy (Department of Health, 2010). Although the rates of teenage pregnancies lowered 13.3%, the rates of pregnancies are still high. This study will investigate the effectiveness of the government strategies to decrease teenage pregnancy using a Focus Group.


  1. References


Aveyard, H. (2010) Doing a Literature Review in health and social care, Buckingham, Open University press (New York, McGraw Hill).

Bryman, A. and Teevan, J.J. (2005) Social Research Methods, Canadian edition: Oxford University Press.

Caribine J. (2007) New Labour Teenage Pregnancy Policy, constituting knowing responsible citizens?21(6) pp. 952-973 [online]. Available at: (accessed 18/03/14).


Department for children, school and families. (2010) About the Teenage Pregnancy Strategy [online]. Available at: (accessed: 16/03/14)

Department of health (2002) Government Response to the First Annual Report of the Independent Advisory Group on Teenage Pregnancy [online]. Available at (Accessed: 16/03/14).

Department of Health (2010) Teenage pregnancy strategy: Beyond 2010. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 25/04/14).

Dennison, C. (2004) Health Development Agency: teenage pregnancy: an review of the research evidence [online]. Available at: media /documents/teenage /teenpreg-evidence-overview.pdf. (Accessed: 15/03/2014).

Ermisch J. Does a ‘teen-birth’ have longer-term impacts on the mother? Suggestive evidence from the British household panel survey. Institute for Social and Economic Research, 2003. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 25/04/2014).

Harden, A., Brunton, G., Adam Fletcher, A., Oakley, A. (2009) Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies. BMJ. 339:b4254. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20/04/2014).

Hadley, A., and Evans, D.T. (2013) Teenage pregnancy and sexual health. Nursing Times. 109(46) pp. 22-27. [online]. Available at:–and-sexual-health-201113.pdf. (Accessed: 22/04/2014).

Henderson, M, Wight, D, Raab, G.M., Abraham, C., Parkes, A., Scott,S., et al. (2007) Impact of a theoretically based sex education programme (SHARE) delivered by teachers on NHS registered conceptions and terminations: final results of cluster randomised trial. BMJ. 334 pp. 133. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 23/04/2014).

Higginbottom, G.M., Mathers, N., Marsh, P., Kirkham, M., Owen, J.M., Serrant-Green, L. (2006) Young people of minority ethnic origin in England and early parenthood: views from young parents and service providers. Soc Sci Med. 63(4) pp. 858-870. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 25/04/2014).

NHS. Teenage pregnancy: an overview of the research evidence. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20/03/2014).

Kenney, J.W., Reinholtz, C., Angelini, P.J. (1997) Ethnic differences in childhood and adolescent sexual abuse and teenage pregnancy. J Adolesc Health. 21(1) pp. 3-10. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 26/04/2014).

Kmietowicz, Z. (2002) US and UK are top in teenage pregnancy rates. BMJ. 324(7350) pp. 1354. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20/03/2014).

Kruger, J., and Gilovich, T. (1999). “Naive cynicism” in everyday theories of responsibility assessment: On biased assumptions of bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 76(5) pp. 743–753. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 25/04/2014).

Lawlor, D.A., and Shaw, M. (2004) Teenage pregnancy rates: high compared with where and when? J R Soc Med. 97(3) pp. 121-123. [online]. Available at:!po=30.0000. (Accessed: 24/04/2014).

Onwuegbuzie, A.J., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L., Zoran, A.G. (2009) A Qualitative Framework for Collecting and Analyzing Data in Focus Group Research. International  Journal of Qualitative Methods. 8(3) pp. 1-21. [online]. Available at: 24/04/2014).

Smart Survey.

Stanley, J. Swierzewski, III (2000) Teen Pregnancy & Health Risks to the Baby [online]. Available at (accessed: 16/03/14).

The National Archives. Teenage pregnancy strategy: beyond 2010. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 20/04/2014).

Unicef (2001) [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 21/03/2014).

Wellings, K., and Kane, R. (1999) Trends in teenage pregnancy in England and Wales: how can we explain them? J R Soc Med. 92(6) pp. 277-282. [online]. Available at: (Accessed: 24/04/2014).