Factors Affecting Managerial Strategic Implementation of Anti-Corruption Programs in the Disciplined Forces in North Korea
Table of Contents
Background of the Study
Corruption is Defined by Transparency International as ‘misuse of entrusted power for private gain’, corruption occurs when public officials who have been given the authority to carry out goals which further the public good, instead use their position and power to benefit themselves and others close to them (Mason, 2010). It is also defined by International governance Institute as “the abuse of authority for personal advantage or for the advantage of another person or group…and includes: bribery, theft, embezzlement, fraud and evasion of payment of Government revenues and taxes (Landell-Mills, 2013).
Corruption is deeply ingrained in the North Korea society so much so that in some cases it has been seen as a way of life. Yang, (2012) argues that, given this situation, honest and hardworking North Koreans have sometimes been despised as fools while the corrupt have been glorified and admired for their dishonest riches. The corrupt have been regarded as clever and shrewd people who should be emulated by all in the society including children. This analysis will explore anticorruption programs that have been put in place to prevent corruption in general and their effect in regard to police corruption. The analyses of anticorruption programs have been triggered by the assumption that corruption in the police is on the rise, anticorruption commission annual report (Asia Society & The University of California, 2009). This raises a fundamental question of whether the anticorruption programs are making any difference in the eradication of corruption in the police service. The analysis will discuss briefly on corruption at a global scene and local scene. The study will also focus on some anticorruption programs and challenges associated with the implementation of those programs.
This section describes some of the many theories developed in an attempt to explain police corruption. The majority of these theories can be grouped into four main types, each of which will be discussed below. Theories explaining corruption have been attempted differently by different scholars in terms of the individual, the police organization and culture, the nature of police work and the environment, in which they work, and the political context and influence. This section will highlight some approaches which integrate components from several of the other types of theories. Theories to be discussed in this section include; individual or “rotten apple” theory, cultural or socialization theory, task environment theory, political context theory, integrated theories, strategies suggested by different scholars will be also be highlighted.
The rotten Apples have been an often stated theory of police corruption. One scholar suggested that corruption could possibly be avoided if recruiting practices were sufficient and thorough so as to screen individuals prone to corruption (Gottschalk, 2012). Another scholar placed the cause of corruption in part on the individual seeking selfish ends. The theory is based upon the belief that only a few apples in the barrel are bad and once these are removed, the remainder will be untainted. “Rotten apple” theorists see police corruption as a result of personal moral; weakness, personality defects, or the accidental recruitment of individuals unsuited for police work. (Gottschalk, 2012)
However, this theory was disputed as early as 1972 in the investigation of New York police corruption by the Knapp commission. The Lusher inquiry (1981) an organization review of police force criticized the rotten apple theory saying; “The rotten apple” theory deals with the corrupt individual and sees all corruption in terms of an individual. It does not and cannot conceive the existence of corrupt or substantially corrupt organizations such as for example a police force or part of it which is vastly different concept”.
Individual or “Rotten Apple” Theory Based Strategies
As theories locating the cause of corruption with the individual officer have been around the longest in the police organizations until recently have subscribed to these theories, strategies designed to select the best possible officers and then deter these officers from engaging in misconduct have been most heavily relied upon and are most prolific (Stevens, 2009). He also proposed that these strategies should include; background investigation, polygraphs, test of emotional and psychological fitness and probationary periods for recruits, development of corruption and the formation of effective internal investigation units.
Marx (1992) also argued for increased sanctioning. Carter (1986) proposed that efforts should focus upon the selection of personnel, meaning, evaluation of officers work performance, transparent compliant and internal affairs systems, public information and education in regards to corruption and the complaints process, internal preventive programs, effective personnel supervision, and sanctions for improper behavior.
Cultural or Socialization Theory
These sociological theories place the emphasis not on individual officers but on the group organization. They propose a police sub culture which includes the view that deviance is institutionalized and accepted to some degree within all police departments (Smart, Association for Institutional Research., & Association for the Study of Higher Education, 2006). The cultural or socialization hypothesis deviant behavior is regarded as appropriate within police sub culture and younger police are socialized by their senior colleagues into the corrupt practices of the department. Several studies have demonstrated substantial decline in the attitudes that, Recruits held towards corruption and misconduct as their career as a police officer progresses, Sherman, (1982).
Cultural or Socialization Theory Based Strategy
Henry (1990, 1991) wrote extensively on police reforms. Two particular strategies aimed at breaking down the code of silence “blue curtain” were the field Associate program and were officers recruited to secretly report internal affairs any corruption they observed during the course of the normal assignment (Knapp, 1972).
The work of a police officer is tough with corruption hazards. An officer must exercise discretion over the use of considerable powers for example the power to arrest, to charge, to use physical force in dealing with people. The general officer works in a situation of how visibility with most of the officers’ actions not witnessed by either members of the public or supervisory officers. States that police work itself seems to have a strong tendency to corruption (Pirolli, 2007). Police see more of the underside of life the rest of us do, not only the worst people but even good people at their worst.
The research questions for this study include:
- What are the attitudes of police officers to anticorruption programs?
- To what extent does public support influencing the implementation of anticorruption programs?
- Is there a significant difference between police culture and implementation of anticorruption programs in the police service?
- What influence does task environment have in the implementation of anticorruption programs in the police service?
- To find out the attitudes of police officers on anticorruption programs
- To establish the public support in the implementation of anticorruption programs.
- To assess the effects of police culture in the implementation of anticorruption programs.
- To find out whether task environment affects implementation of anticorruption programs.
Significance of the Study
The importance of this study gives a comprehensive understanding of the effects of implementation of anticorruption programs amongst the disciplined forces in Kenya. The study will be useful to policy makers where they will strategize on the best strategies to be used in reinforcing anticorruption programs in the fight against police corruption. The beneficiaries of this study will be the anticorruption commission as it will evaluate on the best anticorruption programs best fitting the police service. Other disciplined forces will use the study to fight corruption in their formations. The managers in the disciplined forces will use the study to cub the malaise of corruption in their jurisdictions. Finally the analysis will be useful to researchers.
The benefits associated with this study would include, crafting of the best strategies to fight corruption amongst the disciplined forces. There shall be minimal wastage of resources by implementation of best programs. There will be confidence amongst the police by the civilian after the malaise of corruption is reduced or eliminated. Poor reputation of police will be cleared and civilians will accommodate the police positively. There will be general improvement of social, economic and political aspects of life.
This chapter describes and justifies the research design that the study aims to use. It also describes the population, the sample size, sampling procedures, instruments to be used for the research, piloting of the instrument, data collection and finally analysis procedures.
This study utilized a descriptive survey design. This is because the design is an effective method of gathering data from a larger group and also facilitates the organization of data in an orderly way. The design was appropriate to this study as it describes a unit in context and holistically (Stone, 2008). A descriptive study enables one to look at a phenomenon in its context (Hesse-Biber, 2010). It will also provide more insight and better awareness of the core values and how they affect the performance of an organization.
The target population was members of staff/officers who comprised top, middle, lower middle and lower cadres of staff/officers. The study focused on the officers currently attached to police divisions in Pyongyang city. However, the data would be collected randomly from the selected police divisions.
Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
The study used quota sampling, which according to Babbie (2013), entails the deliberate selection of particular units of the population for constituting a sample size which represents the universe. Quarter sampling enables the researcher to utilize the information- rich respondents (Ibid). Data was collected from the top level, middle level, seniors and junior staff in Pyongyang police division. These are the officers who plan for the division, interact with clients and implement the organizations core values.
The researcher used questionnaires to collect data for this study. The reason being most of the officers answered the questions at the most convenient time of their own given availability. The respondents can fill the questions at their convenience; answer the items in any order and take more than one sitting. Questionnaires also take a short time to collect the data. The questionnaires focused on the knowledge of the core values among the employees of the organization in relation to the mission and vision of the organization and also how that understanding helps to achieve the organization performance.
The study used questionnaires to obtain the primary data. The questionnaires were structured in a clear and understandable manner. The questionnaires were structured in a manner consistent with the objectives of the study to ensure validity and reliability. An introduction Letter accompanied the questionnaire to indicate the purpose of the research and assure them of confidentiality of the data provided. The respondents were given 20 min to respond to the questions after which the questionnaires were collected for data analysis using quantitative and qualitative methods. The secondary data was obtained from the relevant literature, thesis, internet and journals to back up the findings. The researcher carried out a pilot study to test the instruments at police stations which is outside the study area. The pilot study was also used to determine whether the research design and methodology was relevant and effective. This study used 10% of the sample size in piloting as this was considered to be most appropriate and effective.
Validity and Reliability of the Study Instruments
To enhance the validity of the instruments, they were presented to the subject matter experts from University of Detroit Mercy in the School of Business studies for Validity. The Reliability indicated the consistency with which an instrument measures whatever it was supposed to measure. The administered questionnaires were collected and the relevant comments and suggestions included. Then the next test was done to ascertain any further changes to the questionnaire before they were used in the field.
The questionnaire were collected from the respondents and checked for consistency, validity and acceptability before being coded to facilitate their analysis using the statistical package for social sciences SPSS. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used during the tabulation of the data. Each factor was subjected to qualitative analysis. Pearson’s Correlation Test was used to check for the relationship between the dependent and the independent variables.
In data analysis and presentation, a researcher should maintain integrity. For this reason the researcher presented the findings and interpretations honestly and objectively and also avoided untrue, deceptive or doctored results. In this study therefore, confidentiality and honesty was highly observed.
The police were not willing to volunteer information in fear of confidentiality and victimization. This was practically true particularly to junior officers who are not allowed to give any information. To counter this researcher obtained an introduction letter from University of Detroit Mercy and this was taken to relevant authority in the police force for approval.
Police work is taxing and this may result to obstructions and absenteeism of the interviewee. It was very hard to be given an opportunity to interview the officers especially during working days due to multiple assignments to the officers. It therefore resulted to scheduling the interviews to weekends when the officers had a meeting. This needed great patience by the researcher.
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