Landscapes of Power, Resistance of Violence

Rise of tuition fees for students, and how they have reacted with protests and in some cases violence on the streets outside of parliament

Students have protested against a rise of their tuition fees by the government. Example 2010 United Kingdom student protests followed with demonstrations in many areas of the country during November and December 2010. The students concentrated their protests in central London where each student opposed the planned spending cuts for furthering education and increase of their tuition fees by Conservative-Liberal Democratic coalition government that had recently reviewed funds allocated to higher distance learning. The students argued that the cuts were excessive and that they would destroy higher education. Moreover, students would be overburdened with higher debts and politicians will break their promises. Student campaign against fees led to a mass walkout and demonstrations, which attacked party headquarters. Such protests result in injuries and deaths of participants.

Participant observation and interviewing students in coffee shops or simply at their own home. 

Researchers conduct a study on reasons that led to such protests by participative observing them as they demonstrate near parliament buildings, interviewing them in coffee shops and in their homes. The above combination of sites is best considered since, observation helps in gathering first hand information as students shout and air their grievances. Interviews near coffee shops are conducted among a group of students and assist in getting many ideas and explanations as well as suggestions on the arising issues in their universities. However, there are no concrete ideas taken from the group. Clarity of ideas given is taken from home interviews where a researcher interviews a student independently and gets personal ideas. Home interviews retrieve personal ideas and reflections on the strikes.

Processes of accessing a site and dangers involved

While accessing a site, visitors are supposed to follow rules and regulations from the places they are visiting. In this case, the government area is a site with its own rules, which must be fulfilled before permission is granted to visitors. The rules include prior approval of the Access through application forms obtained as hard copies or through online applications. Authorization forms applied should have a clear description of works to be done to the site and attached work permit to access the site. Works must be done as outlined in the permit wile following site rules. Visitors must wear protective garments all times when in the site and consider specific requirements of the site. In addition, the site must be kept clean and left clean. The departure time must be followed and notified to the authority (Work safe Victoria, 2008).

Dangers involved

The proposed site of visitation is the parliament site where actual demonstrations took place. Researchers are exposed to dangers such as electrical hazards from hanging overhead power lines, live circuits in panels and loose cords and tools. Risks of falling objects as people shift materials, rolling materials and loads that were unsecured as well as flying objects. Heavy traffic and equipment poses a great challenge to people on the site (46C5-HT, 2009). The researchers are caught in between moving traffic and loads disconnected from their original locations. In parliament locations there might be falling window panes and doors destroyed by the striking students. Stones and materials maybe thrown and hit the attackers. Sum of injuries and fatalities from the site are many. They include sliding and falling, injuries as one runs from the irate mob and confusion on which routes to follow and exit the area. Some parts are unguarded making equipment to roll over. Risks of unprotected holes, edges and sides as well as improperly constructed walkways. The most common danger in these sites is electrocution from live wires left on the surface.

PART 2

Galtung, J. (2000). Conflict transformation by peaceful means. (The transcend method). Transcend manual, 1-178.

Galtung (2000) argues that conflict is a total of attitude plus behavior plus contradiction. Conflict lifecycle has three phases, before violence, during violence and after violence. Conflicts are emotional initially, become violent in their climax and then taper off and disappear. They may also reappear after some time. Conflicts arise when goals are incompatible, when goals are unrealized. Unrealized goals cause frustration that leads to aggression that brings hatred attitudes. Hatred and violence arises from goal holders although they may not be rational. Violence arising from conflicts harm and hurt participants and ones involved. It results in counter violence and meta-conflicts.

Conflicts are caused by failures to transform emerging conflicts. They have roots in violent cultures that aim at justifying violence through exploitation, alienation, and repression. Conflicting cultures may keep together those who wish to be far apart and separate people who want to be close. Violent actors may have a goal of gaining power or show prowess. Conflicts also aim at building personal identities and gaining power. Galtung (2000) argues that conflicts are handled by making peaceful structures, cultures, and regions to handle conflicts without violence. Peaceful cultures have a tradition of human rights and democratic tradition. Peaceful cultures fit in western nations, which lay special emphasis on individualism attributes such as individual rights, minds, and voting power. However, peaceful cultures are least expressed in collectivism people with a focus on clans, tribes and nations.

Actors of peace include more women, ads on religion, intellectuals, and merchant traditions. Warrior traditions have less expressions of peace. Galtung (2000) postulates that structural violence is worse than direct violence since people lead miserable lives due to political repression, economical exploitation, and deprivation of freedom to get near to whom they belong to or get away from their oppressors. Direct violence is a late warning of existing conditions such as culture and structural that is unbearable. Although import substitution reduces deficits, they end up becoming more resources for others and least resources for another group. As a result, it becomes an area of conflict.

Galtung (2000) argues that development is the process of building conflict transformation capacity. Structural violence is reduced through education, demysfying and deglorifying violence and training people on methods of handling conflicts through empathy and creativity. Moreover, structural violence is reduced through conventions of human rights against repression of civil and political rights and avoiding exploitation of economic, cultural, and social rights.

To get a peaceful economic development, three phases are involved. Phase 1 includes resolution, reconstruction, and reconciliation. The process explains that people should not wait for violence to strike or end but it aims at avoiding its eruption through providing solutions to problems in time.

Violence strikes when some issues are left unattended without proper instructions and creativity to enforce an outcome or get people from frustration. Moreover, conflicts arise when the culture justifies transition from conflict to meta-conflict as opportunities of wining and gaining honor. Conflicts destroy hardware, software, people, and weapons. People defeat conflicts through predicting similar outcomes.

After violence

People rejoice after violence is over however they are left to suffer long lasting consequences of trauma and desire for revenge. There are additional tasks of reconstructing, rehabilitating wounds, rebuilding after damage of materials and reconciliation. Tasks engaged are rehabilitation through collective sorrow and trauma approach. Rebuilding through developmental approach, restructuration through peace structure approach and enculturation through peace culture approach are means of solving conflicts.

Conflict outcomes and processes

The expected outcomes from a conflict are for one party to prevail, second withdrawal from the conflicts and compromise with situation by attacking it. The fifth option is to transcend the situation by using creativity to create compatibility to what was incompatible.

Conflicts theory argues that resolution options solve the root cause of the problem, reconstruction repairs damages caused by violent acts and reconciliation solves meta-conflicts that are existing. Violence has two options of additional glory and revenge producing worse cultures. It polarizes cultures through extra repression, exploitation, and sustaining wars.

Creativity ends conflicts

Creativity is an option used to end wars and conflicts by authority. It involves identification of the closed or blocked phenomena. Secondly, identifying constant parameter, changing the parameter through experimentation and establishing hypothesis to unblock the phenomenon. Further, testing the hypothesis in the real world to get its functionality.

George, A. & Harris, B. (2014). Landscapes of violence: Women surviving family violence in regional and rural Victoria. Deakin university, 1-217.

George and Harris (2014) use in-depth qualitative interviews with thirty women from Victoria region, twenty-four family violence workers, and nineteen lawyers. They also included three magistrates in the survey. The study identified that most females are homeless due to family violence and domestic violence in particular. Violence is rampant and has caused health problems among women and decline of economic costs. Women rarely identify that violence is a form of abuse of their rights making them reluctant to seek support or report it to authority such as police. Moreover, children are mostly affected by family violence with a percentage of 82 in incidents reported to Victoria. Family violence incidents approximate to 60,829 in 2012-2013, which was an increase by 21.6%; reluctant to report to the police comes from inconvenience, resistance to prosecute offenders, additional conflicts eith perpetrators, as well as negative consequences to the family and financial status. Women living in rural areas are at a higher risk of domestic violence than ones staying in metropolitan areas of Western Australia are. Rural women have fewer reports of violence than women living in metropolitan areas do.

Family violence causes disabilities, illnesses, and death. Long-term consequences are trauma, lasting physical injuries, physical and emotional tolls, anxiety, and depression. Survivors of violence engage in suicide, alcoholism, and abuse of substances. Children affected by family violence suffer from difficulties in schools, social interactions, and employment. They remain vulnerable to drug abuse and alcoholism. Family violence is a cycle, which starts during childhood and continues to adulthood.

Recommendations to domestic violence involve creation of domestic violence policy and practical directives for prosecutors and police investigations. Availing of a domestic violence investigation guide accredited by quality assurance program (QA), and a guide into police records that allow access of jurisdictions. Second, availing a domestic violence helpline to offer support and consultation to police officers in diverse communities. In addition, the justice system officials should establish collaborative best practices.

Definitions of domestic violence should be offered to families and vulnerable children and women. Information sharing protocols should be identified among high-risk groups. There should be assessments of children and women at risk of domestic violence. Family violence is solved by focusing on mental health, parental skills, and supportive services. Moreover, programs should be offered to victims on altering violent behavior and establishing healthy relationships. There should be efforts to address fundamental sources of conflict, violence and stress recurring in families with an aim of offering support services and other interventions.

George and Harris (2014) conclude that family violence is on the increase to families. Thus, there should be urgencies while attending victims of family violence. There should be valid solutions to victims of women such as child maltreatment reporting systems, reserved shelters for battered women. Abuse interventions include identification of the case, investigating on it and outlining services for prevention. Primary intervention services are aimed at deterring family violence, improving settings in criminal justice, and avoiding effects of health. Domestic violence interventions treat victims and offenders and prevent future violent acts. Victims chronically affected are sent for referrals to enhance their participation in the society. Domestic violence is reduced among children through offering secondary interventions such as mental health clinics and taken to children care centers.

 

References

George, A. & Harris, B. (2014). Landscapes of violence: Women surviving family violence in       regional and rural Victoria. Deakin university, 1-217.

Galtung, J. (2000). Conflict transformation by peaceful means. (The transcend method).    Transcend manual, 1-178.

46C5-HT (2009).Safety training for the focus four hazards in the construction industry.    Occupational safety and health Administration, U. S. department of labor, 1-128.

Work safe Victoria. (2008). Site security and public access onto housing construction sites. OH & S guidance for house builders ,1-3.

 

 

Response

Creative thinking as defined by Robert Quinn, is a way of viewing management problems or situations from a fresh perspective that may seem unsettling at first. In addition, Quinn says that creative thinking as a management skill, can be as a result of unstructured process like brainstorming, or through structured process such as lateral thinking. Besides, creative thinking is expansive and non-judgmental as it enables one to break away from the usual barriers. Example of creative thinking is when a manger is involved in brainstorming about a product that will attract more customers

On the other hand, Quinn define critical thinking as rational and clear thinking that encompasses critique towards an issue at hand. Further, critical thinking also involves skillfully and actively applying, conceptualizing, synthesizing, reasoning and evaluating information sourced from experience, observation, reasoning and reflection. Additionally, Quinn says that critical thinking is based on global intellectual values that often transcend the subject matter. An example of critical thinking in management can occur when the company wish to improve the quality and quantity of products that a company produces.

According to Quinn, creative thinking can contribute to critical thinking by engaging in brainstorming and well as lateral thinking to help the managers make informed decisions, which is part of critical thinking.

Question Two

From Johari window in a work setting, various advantages may result from revealing something from my Hidden. one is enabling the workmates understand your behaviors as well as capabilities in accomplishing particular task. Meaning that when work is distributed to the workers in the company, work will be according to an individual’s skills and capabilities hence such tasks are accomplished in time.  second, moving from hidden area to free area would be of help to the managers at the work place as they would make me very productive as my strength, emotions, attitudes and knowledge is known to the managers. Hidden are also hinders personal development as a worker may feel insecure around other employees, therefore, moving from hidden area to free area according to Johari Window would assist in personal development and growth.

In the blind are I may find out from the group of workers what they know about me secretly without my knowledge of the same. In the case the group members know my weakness cornering the skills required for a particular job, I may suffer as most of the duties may be handed over to other workers with better skills. Meaning that in will stand to lose most of the job. This will not be entirely a disadvantage nut it will also enable me to work harder in pursuit of improving my areas of weakness that is known to other members of the group hence personal development.

Question Three

Accommodation as a management style define the action of a conflict management team giving what the opposing side needs or doing asper the needs of the opposing side. The application of accommodation occurs when one parity perceives the demand of the opposition as minor or in case where one party wishes to keep peace as a measure of conflict resolution. Example of use of accommodation in a case an employee keeps the time reporting to work to avoid conflict with the employer.

Avoidance as a conflict resolution style on the other hand, define the mechanism of putting conflict off indefinitely. In avoidance the avoider will be on the opinion as well as hope that the conflict will be resolved without his or her confronting the opposing party. For example, when the work relationship between the managers and a given employee results in conflict, then the employee may decide to avoid the managers as well as do his or her duties with dignity and professionalism hence avoiding conflict by not always arguing with the employer.

Compromise works in a case whereby the parties involved in conflicts decides to give up the elements regarding their position to establish an acceptable as well as agreeable solution. This style is commonly used in case both the opposing parties hold equal powers within an organization. An example in m working place was in scenario whereby the heads of IT department and the Sales and marketing department were in conflict about an advert that was not adding up to the promotion of company’s products. Therefore, the heads had to compromise on the advertisement as a means conflict resolution and daily routines picked up for both departments.

Question Four

Systems thinking define a management disciple that relates to understanding of a given system by looking into the linkages as well as interconnections that occurs between the components that encompasses the entirety of the system in discussion. Systems thinking is currently of significance due to the changes occurring in technology innovations in the organization in conjunction with the over-growing global economy. Therefore, system thinking as a management model for the managers, provides models for decision making that aids the company deal with such changes in technological innovations as well as adopt to the same changes. In addition, system thinking allows the management understand fully the scope of their company concerning adoption of a particular change in the company.

An example of systems thinking is in a case whereby the management wish to reduce the cost of production by importing cheap raw materials into the company while increasing the price of products as a means of profit generation. The procurement department was on the opinion that the opinion cost is already an extra spending rather than acquiring the homegrown raw materials. The sales department also reported to the mangers that it would be difficult to raise the prices of the finished products since other companies also produces the same products. Therefore, the management resolved to improve on the quality and quantity of the products to generate more profits.

Question Five

The Gantt Chart as developed by Gantt in 1910, describes a series of horizontal lines that indicates the amount of task done as well as the production completed by an employee within a certain period in conjunction to the amount designated for those periods. The Gantt Chart is often employed in project management as various activities have to take place in the within the project location. Workers, materials, time schedules, professionals, as well as the plant must be considered at the same time hence my lead to confusion. therefore, a Gantt Chart is of essence.

In my work place, I have witnessed how Gantt Chart is used of which it has come to be of great importance. The worker’s names were included into the Gantt Chart to indicated their respective duties in the project, the salaries, time needed for task completed as well as definition of their duties. In addition, the project was completed in time as every employee was under supervision leading to quality work by the employees.

 

 

Topic: Business Law

Volkswagen’s Legal Endgame in Emissions Scandal

White Collar Watch

By Peter J. Henning   April 25, 2016

Volkswagen has increased its reserves to $18 billion and these increased reserves are meant to cover the cost of penalties as well as recalls in the United States. These penalties and recalls are related to diesel emissions cheating. By taking up this step, it shows that the company is in the process of ending this scandal. The issue in question here is whether the employees of the company will be prosecuted in the United States for the installation of a defective device that makes diesel engines appear to comply with federal and state environmental laws when in reality they did not comply with any of those laws.

Based on arising questions on how the $18 billion will be spent, the New York Times issued a report saying that the cost of buying back diesel cars with the affected engines was approximately $7 billion. This was an estimate done by Kelley Blue Book which is an automobile research firm. More to that there will also be some compensation paid to the owners of the cars for the loss of their vehicles. The company is also expected to pay for fixing cars in Europe and other countries which may vary in cost based on the fact that those countries have different environmental requirements therefore the penalties are different. The compensation to the car owners and the cost incurred to get the diesel cars fixed is about $8 billion.

On the other hand penalties have also to be paid to the Justice Department and to the federal regulators together with attorney generals in the states and the California Air Resources Board which helped to uncover the cheating. Looking at other automobile companies, General Motors paid a $900 million penalty for problems related to faulty engine switches, Toyota on the other hand paid $1.2 billion for providing misleading statements about defects in its cars. These cases were resolved thro8gh deferred prosecution agreements with the Justice Department and by doing so the companies avoided criminal conviction.

Volkswagen is also expected to follow a similar procedure to resolve its issues with the Justice Department but its penalties are likely to exceed those that Toyota paid. This is based on the point that federal prosecutors could take a harder line with Volkswagen by demanding a guilty plea because of indications that the company failed to report the emissions cheating and initially claimed that it was in compliance with the law. The Justice Department is also looking for possible civil violations of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery and Enforcement Act for possible fraud by the company affecting banks that had purchased security packaging loans to buyers of its cars. The Federal Trade Commission has also sued Volkswagen over its false advertisements promoting the environmental benefits of its diesel engines.

The above article relates with what I read from the text book on how businesses or firms are expected to operate in the presence of federal laws, environmental laws and other laws set in areas of operation. Companies are expected to perform their activities based on these laws and be truthful in reporting to the law enforcers. The article also demonstrates some of the legal consequences that businesses face when then fail to comply with the set laws and regulation. In this case we can see the automobile companies being charged huge penalties for failing to comply with environmental laws for instance in the case of Volkswagen. Companies are expected to abide to the laws and regulations set to avoid issues with the Justice Department as well as other law enforcing agencies.

 

References

Keenan, D. J., & Riches, S. (2007). Business law. Harlow: Pearson Longman.

Slorach, J. S., & Ellis, J. G. (2007). Business law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Volkswagens Legal Endgame in Emissions Scandal – The New York Times. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/26/business/dealbook/volkswagens-legal-endgame-in-emissions-scandal.html?ref=business&_r=0

 

Topic: Defense Mechanisms

In situation one the defense mechanism used is that of controlled emotions. The party involved is in great pain after the injury but the individual is able to control the emotions of pain and telling everyone that it was okay and the injury was not too bad. While undertaking medication the doctor advised that the pig’s mouth was full of bacteria and the patient underwent a lot of pain while undertaking medication. The individual was angered but she was able to control herself. The age bracket of the individual is 70 years and the emotional development is that of an adult. It is in line with Valliant’s model that states that older adults tend to be more securing with who they are and therefore their emotional responses become more stable and predictable.

In situation two, the defense mechanism used by Jane is she began blaming everyone in the office except herself after she was fired for insubordination and dishonesty. Her attitude about who she is had so much negative energy in it as we can see her telling her employer that she is doing them a favor by working for them. Her age is 24 years and she is not able to control her emotions. Her reaction is in line with Valliant’s model that points out the difference between older adults and young adults in the twenties.

From the examples above, the emotional development levels are those of older adults and young adults. They are in line with Valliant’s hypothesis that changing defense mechanisms ate key to describing emotional development in adulthood. This is evident in that in the first situation the older adult is handling her emotions as opposed to Jane in the second situation who is a young adult. Her reaction clearly shows her poor ability to control her emotions.

 

References

Freud, A., & Institute of Psycho-analysis (Great Britain). (1993). The ego and the mechanisms of defence. London: Karnac Books.

Valliant, P. M., Ennis, L. P., & Raven-Brooks, L. (1995). A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY MODEL FOR ANGER MANAGEMENT WITH ADULT OFFENDERS.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation22(3-4), 77-93. doi:10.1300/j076v22n03_07

 

COMMUNICATION MEDIA

Soft Power

Soft power has been used to sway people to change sides or opinions about something they previously had not so good opinion about without them feeling coerced or compelled to have a change in opinion. On the global scene and in the world politics and economics, soft power has been enhanced through transport of culture and extension of economic help so as to help build reputations, especially when such reputations are not so good. China is one country that is making use of soft power to a positive effect as it is spreading its culture and economic help to various part of the world which are fast improving its image around the globe.

The Image of China

China has a fair image on the global scene. The economic power that China possesses rates it highly and positively across various nations of the world. Many nations applaud China for the strides taken in fast growing is economy to the levels in which it has reached today and this is one area China has not to worry about even there are areas where this is considered to be a threat.

However, there have always been weak spots in the image of this wonderful Asian nation. It is known in various sections of the world as a nation that values economic development over human rights. Further, its cultures have also been questioned for a number of reasons as including having little regards to animal rights as can be seen in various festivals such as the dog eating festival.

With a good economic image the world over, there is the realization more should be done and efforts are being made by the Chinese government to ensure that the nation has a better image in every aspect the world over. This can be seen through the coverage of the various economic and cultural engagements China engages in abroad with various media outlets bringing out the same as positive.

Examples of What China Does to Create National Image

As pointed out earlier, China engages in a number of cultural promotion activities through sectors such as tourism to enhance its national image. The use of communications and media to relay to the world the beauty about China attracts people to visit the nation and witnessed that which is beautiful, that which is not human rights abuse but rather that which is very beautiful about the nation. China has also issued economic help to countries around the globe; commissioning and completing multibillion projects in mostly greener markets of the world in democracies that are fast developing. This has also given China the image of a state promoting development.

The public relations offensive embarked upon by China so as to improve its image around the globe include among other the Silk Road Economic belt which has been funded by Chinese money so as to better infrastructure that can even be used by other nations. There is also the twenty first century Maritime Silk Road which outlines Beijing’s policy of enhancing its image through investing billions in projects in other nations so that a better image of China can be created.

China is also looking to nations that have heavily been influenced by Western nations over the past years so as to impose the brand China in these nations. China has been developing various projects in a number of developing nations especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America with projects such as infrastructure development including road and stadia construction being key.

 

References

Barr, M., 2012. Nation branding as nation building: China’s image campaign. East Asia, 29(1), pp.81-94.

Ding, S., 2007. Digital diaspora and national image building: a new perspective on Chinese diaspora study in the age of China’s rise. Pacific Affairs, pp.627-648.

Kurlantzick, J., 2007. Charm offensive: how China’s soft power is transforming the world. Yale University Press.

Liu, J. and Diamond, J., 2005. China’s environment in a globalizing world. Nature, 435(7046), pp.1179-1186.

Shao, J., Li, X., Morrison, A.M. and Wu, B., 2016. Social media micro-film marketing by Chinese destinations: The case of Shaoxing. Tourism Management, 54, pp.439-451.

 

 

 

 

Introduction to gender and sexuality

Feminism is defined as the belief that requires women to be treated equally in social, economic and political aspects to their male counterparts. Feminism aims to create an equal society for males, females and transgender people minus any forms of discriminations. In most cases, those against feminism are sexists and their ideologies are influenced by patriarchy. This is a form of setting in the society where men are viewed to be superior over women and are tasked with more technical responsibilities in the society than women(Nicholson, 2013).

Body

Feminism has evolved with the changing dynamics of the society and unlike in the past where it was all about sexes in has taken more focus on social and constructive aspects in relation to gender and sexuality. The evolvement of feminism has been realized in the 21st century due to the strong notion that women do not want to be viewed as weak and desperate beings, as a matter of fact they are not lesser beings and what feminism advocates for is equal opportunities for all (Aronson, 2003). War has always been noticed to be the method of procuring power at national and international levels. Feminists however have taken a diplomatic approach to construct and maintain international relations(Hawkesworth, 2006). However, some restrictive laws and traditions have hindered the efforts of feminists towards creating an all-equal society. Bringing the interests of women to a neutral platform has always been a challenge because of their diversities. Although women form the larger part of the world`s population, forming a given group that can genuinely claim to be fighting for the rights of all women has always been impossible. Those who wish to advocate for global women issues should therefore try and come up universal agendas. This has been achieved through treaties that once ratified impose responsibilities on states and allow monitoring such governments. Advocates of feminism can achieve their goals through forming global and local organizations that work simultaneously to address issues of equality at all levels and dimensions. It is clear that for feminists` arguments to prevail; concrete facts should be brought to those who need to be convinced. This therefore requires feminists to establish research centers where tangible facts can be obtained to be tabled in various conferences and conventions in regards to the various issues than need to be articulated by feminism. Feminists have resorted to legal channels of addressing the crimes of inequality experienced mainly by women. This has been facilitated by establishing tribunals and courts that specifically deal with crimes against women that tend to insinuate they are lesser beings. The anti-modern feminists have argued that the issue of trying to advocate for equality for women is a sign that they are weak and therefore another way of discriminating against them(Hawkesworth, 2006). However, in ideal settings, various groups of individuals have unique characteristics and thus should be protected against injustice by another group which might take advantage of some circumstances. Most people think feminism is all about fighting men which is not the actual case. Feminism entails enlightening the world that people are equal and should be equally treated without putting into consideration their gender or sexuality(Nicholson, 2013).

Conclusion

Currently, feminist theory aims at addressing inequalities that are realized along intersectional lines of class, gender, sex, ability and sexuality. The feminists strive to bring change where the intersectionalities lead to power inequality. The politicians and advocates of feminism through campaigns in areas of reproductive rights, social justice, discrimination and domestic violence tend to address the unhealthy sexist dynamics in the society. It is notable that in occurrence of a stereotyping, intersectional oppression, infringement of human rights and objectification issue, it is always a feminist issue. Women and other individuals against feminism should always try to understand the meaning and purpose of feminism. Giving feminism different negative interpretations to imply that it aims at staging war against men is not just to the society as a whole.

 

References

Nicholson, L. (2013). Feminism/postmodernism. Routledge.

Hawkesworth, M. E. (2006). Globalization and feminist activism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/10/fashion/sorority-ivy-league-feminists.html

Aronson, P. (2003). Feminists or “postfeminists”? Young women’s attitudes toward feminism and gender relations. Gender & Society, 17(6), 903-922.

Jesus

This reading dismisses Jesus as the true human teacher. The writing portrays Jesus just like any other human being who did not have power whatsoever to claim that he forgives sins. If Jesus was God then he had the right to say that he could forgive sin but he was just a human being. The writer insinuates that Jesus was not God and claiming that He could forgive somebody’s sins is just silly. Nobody in their right mind can proclaim to forgive sins if He was/is not God yet Jesus forgave sins and people believed in Him.

The writer notes that Jesus was not a great moral teacher because from the teachings He made there was humbleness in them. According to the quotation, Jesus acted like He was the one being offended and not God and that was the reason why He claimed to forgive sins. The conclusion gives human beings two choices either to believe that Jesus was the son of God or he was just another lunatic.

The writer makes some good points that when a man comes out of nowhere and claims to be the son of God it is quite strange especially in the Jewish community where they believed God to be out and away of these world. But the question is, if Jesus was not the son of God how was he able to perform all the miracles? A mere man cannot perform miracles and cannot go around bragging that he is the son of God if He was not. Taking closer at Jesus’ teachings there are not anywhere close to being humanly in nature and therefore agreeing with the views of the writer is hard.

 

Reference

Lewis C. S. (2002) “Mere Christianity”

democracy

A democracy is a way of governing people of a country in a way the people elect representatives to represent them in a government. This idea brings about the ideas of social equality in terms of everybody being equal. The method that the High Court judges are appointed and removed from office have always aroused a lot of interest in people. It has a public interest that captures the topics of discussions and debates among the public. The judicial has to have its independence and most of the appointments have always been based upon this facts. Today however the judicial independence has been eroded and there has been concerns about that[1]. This paper will look into the retirement of the judges and what implications that the set requirements of the high courts have on the judicial system. The paper will also compare other high courts in other countries with Australia’s and see if there are any similarities with how they appoint and remove their high court judges. The issue on retirement of the highest courts of the lands has always elicited conflicts from all around the world even in the third world countries. Should the judges in the highest courts be forced to retire?

In Australia there has been a period of stability in the High Court but this is expected to change over the next few years. This because more than seven judges are supposed to retire because they have attained the age of 70. In order to be eligible for a High Court appointment, the person must be or at least must have been a judge of another court. If neither of the above is true, then the person must have a legal consultant for more than five years. Under Chapter III, Section 72 of the constitution for one to be appointed a justice of the high court there are some requirements that are needed. The High Court judges are appointed by the Governor-General in the Council and cannot be removed expect by the same person who appointed them. For them to be removed they have they have to show misbehavior and incapacitation on the side of the judge. The section also requires the judges to retire at the age of 70 years.

Before 1977, the judges would work until they felt that they were not fit for the job anymore and were found unfit to serve in the high court due to incapacitation or any other reason. There simply was no age limit whatsoever when it came to the justices until a referendum that was held in 1977 that set an age limit of 70 years for the justices to retire. More than 80 percent of the Australians voted in favor of the judges retiring at the age of 70. [2]The longest serving justice in Australia was forced to retire at the age of 82. Justice McTiernan served for over 45 years as a judge and refused to retire but was forced to retire when he broke his hip bone and could not go back to sit in the court. Shortly after this, the referendum was held and that changed the laws for the judges giving them a mandatory age to retire.

In almost every country there is a limitation of the age that judges should retire. In the U.S the Supreme Court judges are nominated by the executive and confirmed by the senate which means that both arms of the government have some input in the judicial system. The retirement age varies from state to state. In order to be eligible for a High Court appointment, the person must be or at least must have been a judge of another court. If neither of the above is true, then the person must have a legal consultant for more than five years. Vermont established the highest retirement age to be 90 years old in 2003. In the U.S there have been efforts towards changing the mandatory retirement ages of justices. They challenged the term limit citing that it was discriminatory under the equal protection and due processes under the Fourteenth amendment. The cases were however dismissed citing unconvincing presentations of the case.  The real question now begs, should the judges be allowed to retire at 70 or should they just retire when they want.

In Canada the judges have to sit in front of parliamentary hearings. In these hearings the judges are questioned about their judicial philosophies after they have been selected tor appointment. This means that more people are able to participate in the selection making it more transparent. In the UK on the other hand, the appointment of the Supreme Court judges requires the direct contribution of 26 people 21 being judges themselves. However the country also requires its judges to retire at the age of seventy.The age limitation is therefore all round the world.

When justices retire at the age of 70 most of them are still healthy and are able to deal with situations like they did in the past. One cannot compare the 70 of today with the 70 of yesteryears. Anybody at the age of seventy today is healthier than a person of the same years in the yesteryears. People are living more productive and longer lives. The life expectancies have increased considerably and maybe it is time to change that law that was made in 1977. The point of making a judge retire yet they are very healthy and pay them retirement benefits beats logic. The judicial costs will continue to rise because the appointment of the new judges will still inflict judicial costs. The increase in the judicial costs can be avoided all together by letting the judges retire at any time that they want to. The judicial discipline system is even expected to remove judges from the bench if they become too old to perform their duties in the right manner.

In an article by Ugur Nedim[3] Judge Graham Bell is quoted noting that 55 or 60 years is the new seventy. The justices of the highest courts should not be kicked out just because they have reached seventy years. A good example is the retired Justice Michael Kirby who retired in 2009. He was appointed to serve in the Arbitration Panel of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes among other prestigious positions in 2013[4]. Being elected to serve in this places shows that people who are over 70 years old still do not have one of their feet in the grave and should be allowed to continue serving in the high court. The judges should therefore be allowed to retire when it suits them and not at the age of 70. Many of the retired justices still take roles in other positions. This means that they should not be forced to retire.

On the other end however, there is need to be maintain an environment in the courts that is vigorous and dynamic. There is also need to open up avenues for younger legal practitioners who would like to serve in the highest court in the land. Today more people are going to school young and complete their studies at a very young age. They however cannot get employment because the places are filled with old people most of whom are over fifty years. These youngsters end up not having jobs and remaining at home doing mostly nothing. There will be no place for them to practice law and they might never get the experience that is required. Even those with experience might never get the chance to serve in the High Court because most of the justices are sixty years or older. If the justices are given the right to retire when they want, changes that is very much needed might never be realized and more young people will be in dissolution because they might never serve in the high courts.

Choosing a High Court judge is one of the most important appointments that a federal government makes. This is because the high court scrutinizes the government’s laws and rules. High court judges have the final word on the interpretation of all the laws in Australia. This might be the reason as to why the process and method that is used to appoint the judges is very hotly contested.The High Court judges are chosen by the belief that they will favor the federal interests. Some critics however tend to disagree with this option. It has been said that the justices are selected on terms of merit alone. People also disagree on this end. There are other factors that tend to come into play. [5]George Williams for example feels that the appointments are not done on the basis of merit alone. He points out that friendship and the political inclinations tend to play a role when it comes to selection of the justices. The justices are usually selected in terms of what is needed to be accomplished within that period of time. The involvement of politics in the process of High Court appoint is always unavoidable. There is very little accountability that exists within the judicial officeholders. This means that the appointment are used as checkpoints for the court. The government might be tempted to influence the legacy of the judicial system by a careful selection of the High Court judges. The appointees can be chosen with regards to their past decisions or their political beliefs which means the whole appointing process might be marred by politics.

When judges spend so much time on the bench they are bale to gain valuable experience that can be used in solving cases that are in disputes. There has not been controversies over most of the rulings by the courts. This means that the judges are able to give their judgement according to the social norms and the contemporary society. It has been said that the judges are there to apply the law and not make it. The judges will therefore represent the views of the contemporary society as long as what they rule is according to the law. According to Ryan Park (2016) the supremely old are the supremely wise and they therefore should not be forced to retire. [6]Park notes that these judges have what he calls crystallized intelligence that is earned over the years of experience. With age people are able to gain wisdom within their expertise that they are able to use over the years.

The mandatory retirement of judges is a conflict all around the world. With the retirement of the old judges comes with it some challenges. Appointing of justices can be quite cumbersome and tricky. The retirement of old judges have always been a bone of contention between the judges and the state. Most of the judges have refused to retire citing reasons that they are still fit to serve in the positions. Most of the retired judges go ahead and serve in other higher place without much problems that come with age. The life expectancy today has increased and therefore the 70 of yesteryears is not the 70 of today. People at 70 are still fit and they can serve on the bench until they feel like they want to retire. However, this present a dissolution to the younger adults who will feel like they have to get to a certain age so that they can finally servein the high court. This dissolution might lead to less motivation among the young people who are the future generations. With increased years that they serve on the bench, the judges gain knowledge that they use to serve in cases later in life.

 

References

Anthony Mason The Appointment and Removal of Judges Judicial Commission of New South Wales Retrieved from www.judcom.nsw.gov.au/publications/education-monographs-1/monograph1/fbmason.html

George Williams 2014 Who’ll be the Next Judge of the High Court as Justices Kenneth Hayne and Susan Crennan Retire? Retrieved from m.smh.com.au/comment/wholl-be-the-next-judge-of-the-high-court-as-justice-kenneth-hayne-and-susan-crennan-retire-20141115-11nluq.html

Malia Meddick Mandatory Retirement Ages for Judges: How Old is Too Old to Judge? Retrieved from iaals.du.edu/blog/mandatory-retirement-ages-judges-how-old-too-old-judge

Ryan Park, 2016 The Supremely Old, Supremely Sharp, Supreme Court The Atlantic retrieved from www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2016/02/supreme-court-justices-mental-sharpness/470175

Ugur Nedim (2015) Should old Judges be Forced to Retire? Sydney Criminal Lawyers retrieved from www.sydneycriminallayers.com.au/blog/should-old-judges-be-forced-to-retire

 

 

[1] Anthony Mason “The Appointment and Removal of Judges”

[2]Malia Meddick “Mandatory Retirement Ages for Judges: How Old is Too Old to Judge?”

[3]Ugur Nedim “Should old Judges be Forced to Retire?

[4]Ugur Nedim “Should old Judges be Forced to Retire?

[5]George Williams 2014 “Who’ll be the Next Judge of the High Court as Justices Kenneth Hayne and Susan Crennan Retire?

[6]Ryan Park ‘The Supremely Old, Supremely Sharp, Supreme Court

Topic: Citibank Case Study

Citigroup was a multinational financial services company headquartered in Manhattan, New York. It was the sixth largest residential lender in the United States in 2004 and was rapidly growing. The financial institution has been undergoing some problems and issues of fraud and unethical practices. These practices are as a result of organizational, social and psychological factors. Some ethical theories like Shareholder theory can be used to justify and criticize Citibank’s behavior. Sherry Hunt who is an employee at Citibank is undergoing problems in dealing with these unethical issues in the institution. Despite the challenges she is going through she is trying her level best to fulfill her ethical responsibility throughout the timeline described in the case. Such ethical responsibility is difficult to uphold following the increased unethical issues even in authorities that should be advocating and ensuring that ethical practices are upheld in organizational practices.

Answer to Part 1.a

The problem at Citibank is that there are instances of fraud running from the top management to the employees. Some of the negligent practices that were taking place include forcing employees to fudge records and books for their own interests and for the interests of the top officials. The top officials at Citibank are also reluctant in dealing with cases of fraud based on the fact that instead of dealing with the root cause of the matter they are using shortcuts of forcing employees to fudge records and books in a manner that the books no longer reflect the errors made.

Citibank is also facing some issues in the default rates in mortgage loans. Citibank aims at maintaining a default rate of less than 6% but from the case study it is clear that the financial institution has not managed to maintain these expected levels. Some of the reasons that have attributed to this are the presence of fraudulent employees who in most cases approve mortgage loans to clients who are not creditworthy. From the case study an example is given where a client has savings amounting to $50 but this client ends up getting a mortgage loan that is 100% financing. Based on the deposit that this client holds in the bank it is unreasonable for him or her to get a mortgage loan that is 100% financing. These are some of the issues affecting Citibank alongside other ethical issues in the management of the institution’s funds and loans.

Answer to Part 1.b

All these issues at Citibank were caused by several factors. These factors ranged from organizational, social, and psychological factors. One of the factors that led to this was the culture within the Real Estate Lending (REL).The discretionary salary and bonuses of city mortgage employees up to its CEO depended upon the percentage of loans approved. This criterion of remuneration of loan officers getting paid on commission posed a high potential risk of the employees participating in unethical practices for them to get a paycheck. With this kind of remuneration procedures the employees always aimed at getting more and more clients to get the mortgage loans and in the process of doing that they gave out loans even to non-creditworthy clients.

On the other hand the organizational culture of the constant change in upper management was also a major issue in the organization. After every two to three months there was a reshuffle of officers in the upper management positions. The specialty of the officer was based on where he/she would land after the reshuffle. Many at times officers landed in areas where they did not have enough experience and in some instances the officers lacked total experience in those areas. From the case study, Hunt is estimating that the position of second in command under Citi Mortgage’s CEO has changed fifteen times from 2004 to 2011. The reshuffling of officers poses some challenge in the effective performance of the organization since some officers are experienced in some areas.

Answer to Part 2.a

One of the theories that might be most forgiving to Citibank and that under which the practices at Citibank are defensible is the Shareholder theory. The shareholder theory states that the sole responsibility of a business is to increase profits. The only qualification on the rule is that the business should make as much money as it can conforming to the basic rules of the society, both those embodied in law and those embodied in ethical custom. In attempt to meet shareholders expectations, managers and other top officials are forced to manipulate the company accounts. In the case of Citibank, the top officials were fudging records and accounts to make sure that what is reflected in those accounts is pleasing the shareholder and moving towards their expectations.

That can partly defend their actions but on the other hand the theory does not justify Citibank’s practices to some extent. This is because the theory adds that the shareholder’s needs and expectations should be met and at the same time the managers of the company should conform to the rules embodied by the law and the custom. In this case the law does not allow manipulation of records and this makes Citibank’s practices wrong.

Answer to Part 2.b

Being in Sherry Hunt’s shoes would be challenging and hectic. Some of the questions and problems that would arise is deciding whether to be ethical and go against the employer or to be unethical and conform with the workplace cultures and trends. Based on the fact that she had a family with children and these children needed to be provided for, she must be struggling between being associated with an unethical organization that employs her or quitting the job and staying jobless. Some questions that one can also be asking oneself in such a situation are; why I am the only one in the company seeing unethical conducts? From the case study it is evident that at Citibank even the top most management officers were engaging in fraudulent activities and even pressured the employees to be unethical by forcing them fudge the records and books.

In such a situation one can also be in a dilemma in determining which the best course of action is when such unethical practices are encountered. From the case study it is clear that Hunt tried to report these fraud cases to authorities such as the FBI but the authorities did not take these matters seriously. When such trusted authorities show disinterest in what seems crucial to an ethical person, the individual can be tied up on what to do next as in the case of Hunt. In such a situation one has to make decisions that tend to favor some aspects of right and wrong.

Answer to Part 2.c

If I were in Sherry Hunt’s position my ethical responsibility would be to stand with what is right and ethical without caring whether I am standing alone or with others. In my own view, Sherry Hunt fulfilled her ethical responsibility throughout the timeline described in the case. To begin with, from the case study it is evident that Sherry Hunt stopped working and associating with organizations after finding out that the organization was participating in unethical practices. She points out that she has left several companies after discovering that they are unethical but in the case of Citibank, quitting is not an option since she has nowhere else to go.

In addition to that, from the case study we can see Sherry Hunt pointing out incidents of fraud in Citibank’s operations and after discovering this she is taking initiative and reporting to the relevant authorities. Hunt is working in collaboration with Bowen who was once her boss and she is also working in association with REL to ensure that Citibank becomes more efficient and ethical. After attempts to deal with the unethical issues in the institution without progress, Hunt went ahead and reported Citi’s fraud anonymously on HUD’s website. When there was no response she did the same on the FBI website. She kept trying but her attempts bore no fruits since even the authorities seemed disinterested in what she was reporting.

She was frustrated but she didn’t lose hope defending what is right since she went a step further and in November 2010 she begun studying the Dodd-Frank Act. The main aim of doing this was that she was hoping to educate herself on how she would report the violations she was witnessing. By doing all these it is evident that she fulfilled her ethical responsibility throughout the timeline.

Answer to Part 2.d

If I were in Sherry Hunt’s position I suspect that I would not live up to that same ethical responsibilities since unethical issues are now widespread even to the authorities that should be advocating for ethical conduct and behavior. Being ethical is right but Hunt’s position demanded more than just being ethical. She had a lot of tough decisions to make and these decisions despite her attempt being ethical, she was also required to make decisions that impacted her family and life positively. For instance in determining whether to quit working with Citibank since it was unethical or condoning the unethical behavior for the sake of her job and her family was abit tough. Many at times in such a condition people tend to choose the direction that suits their interests and the interests of their family since unethical issues are on the rise and fighting with such issues alone can be hectic.

 

References

Shareholder & Stakeholder Theories Of Corporate Governance. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.corplaw.ie/blog/bid/317212/Shareholder-Stakeholder-Theories-Of-Corporate-Governance

 

Research Question

A research question is a focused, specified and arguable question that guides the direction of the research. As a matter of fact the research question should not at one time have a noticeable answer but should always compel the participant to make an original claim. The thesis statement of the research should answer the research question. Good research questions in a research allow the researcher to take an arguable position but they do not allow room for ambiguity (Francis, 2015). The major characteristic of research question is that they must be arguable, solve a certain problem, must either be narrow or broad, must be researchable with a given location and framework and must provide the intended framework. The role of this work is to illustrate how research question might be specific, arguable and focused.

Despite the fact that all research questions are required to take a stand, in the field of social sciences they are required to have data that is repetitive in nature. The data in these research questions must be reliable in order to provide a strong and arguable research (Francis, 2015). The research question must assist the researcher to measure and gather certain facts of the specific phenomenon, match the theory and facts, compare to models or hypothesis and prove that a given strategy in more effective than other methods. It should be understood that have good research questions enables the researcher to endeavor in writing a strong, reliable and consistent research.

Research question one

What factors of peer support intervention which prevents suicide in high school males?

The research question is specific because it single out the supportive measures which might assist in elimination of suicide among high school males. The question open a room for argument because the researcher can decide to find the degree or to extent in which the high school male students are commit suicide or he may wish to establish the reasons  for the increased rate of suicide cases of male students in high school (Francis, 2015). The research question is specific in to what the researcher wants to establish. The research question directs the respondent and the reader of the research that the aim of the research is to find which gender in high school is influenced to commit suicide.

Research question two

Do the elderly in the society diagnosed with Alzheimer experience pain?

The research question is specific in nature because it single out the elderly in the society suffering from Alzheimer disorder. The question is arguable because the research can either argue that the elderly suffering from Alzheimer experience pain or they do not experience pain (Francis, 2015). The question is focused because it is focused on the pain experienced by the elderly people in the society suffering from Alzheimer.  Given that the research question is measureable and comprehensive in nature it has the potential to produce dependable research for the specific phenomenon in question.

Research question three

How do psychiatric hospital units designed in order to influence the patient’s hostility.

The question is arguable since it provides a room of determining the influence the psychiatric units have in controlling the level of violence in a given incidence (Francis, 2015). The research question is specific in nature because it single out the psychiatric hospital units for research instead of just covering all the hospital units for the research.  The research question is focused because it necessitates the research to focus on the patient’s hostility in the Psychiatric hospital units. The researcher does not have to focus on other patients within the hospital or other units but specifically those occupied by hostile patients.

In conclusion, the research questions relate to my field of discipline because they are specific, measurable, arguable, and comprehensive and focused upon a particular phenomenon. The sources which might be required to answer these questions might be the hospital administration, newspaper articles, journals, websites, internet and past research.

 

Reference

Francis, K. (2015). Identifying and defining research questions. 5th edition. Duke University Press.