Organization culture and Innovation

Does organization culture promote innovation

Hurley, R., & Hult, T. (1998). Innovation, market orientation, and organizational learning: an integration and empirical examination. Journal of marketing, 1 (62), 42-54.

The authors display a conceptual framework using a sample of 9648 employees obtained from 56 organizations from U.S. federal government.. the findings indicated that a culture of innovation in a firm offers greater capacity for adaptation and innovation.Hurley & Hult (1998) asserts that cultures developed in organizations promote workplace innovations. Companies with a culture of sourcing ideas from external businesses, form a habit of innovation in their projects to compete with others in the market. Employees research on obtained ideas depending on their status. Through positive collaboration and support from other members and their top executives, they improve their projects and increase on sales and profits. Companies wishing to innovate must focus on power sharing; build enough tolerance in their risk taking activities through effective communication.

Innovative companies source useful information from external businesses and use them to generate their own ideas in innovating existing projects. Moreover, external focus encourages research and self development as well as conducting training and benchmarking activities which facilitate innovation. Employees who are motivated on self development will consider adding their education which opens ways of gathering extra ideas on innovation.

Share of power reduces boundaries of status, turf and politics which negatively affect innovation. Communication promotes innovation of different ideas to firm projects. The authors recommend incorporation of constructs associated with innovation into researching orientation in the market and organiational learning.

Lichtenthaler, U., Hoegl, M., & Muethel, M.(2011). Is your company ready for open innovation? MIT Sloan management review, 1 (53), 45-48.

The study was a systematic review from 29 emphirical articles on open innovation process. The findings indicated that transfer of technology stimulates innovation. Lichtenthaler, Hoegl and Muethel (2011) assert that companies having cultures of transferring technology through innovation practices have an opportunity to innovate. Companies grouped among technology brokers, pursue inbound and outbound open innovation. Employees in these companies realize benefits of opening to innovation processes and experience positive impacts of initiatives in open innovation. A culture of incorporating technology in organisations assists in outsourcing ideas and combination of ideas which transfers and improves technology. Innovation is on the increase in such companies eliminating factors such as biasness of some employees. Conduction of benchmarking activities, provision of incentives such as materials and funds as well as support from employers improves the nature of the Company through innovation.

Companies with this culture have highest level of return on their sales due to their implementation on open innovation. They engage their employees in inbound and outbound open innovation facilitating transfer of technology.  These companies derive more benefits from interviews and additional opportunities in open outbound innovation thus strengthening the approaches. . Managers and top executives act as champions and innovation promoters.

Firms with a tradition of establishing incentive systems for internal innovation, such as patenting technologies developed internally and invention of monetary and non-monetary mechanisms of innovation, support transfer of technology and technology. Companies with personal organisational structures experience open innovation. The authors recommend use of advanced technology for technological innovation.

Goncalo,J.,& Staw,B. (2004). Individualism-collectivism and group creativity. Organisational behaviour and human decision processes, 100, 96-109.

The authors manipulated an individualistic vs. Collectivistic approach and employed their creativity through specific instructions. The study was conducted among 204 students from an American University in three phases.surveys were completed and generation of ideas in phases was considered.  The findings indicated that individualistic groups are extra creative than collectivisim groups.Goncalo & Staw (2004) state that innovation is affected by a culture of collectivism or individualism.  Individualism culture established in organisations makes employees feel independent and unique from other employees. Collectivism culture makes employees interdependent with the group and organisations in which they belong. Innovation is established in organizations with collectivism cultures since they promote the interest of group members and not personal interests. Collectivism culture improves members self esteem by accepting contributions from each person abilities. As a result innovation takes root in collectivism cultures who concentrate on well-being of the whole group through conducting beneficial researches and benchmarking activities.  Collectivism cultures lead employees towards understanding various norms of the organisation that lead to reaching the set targets of the organisation. Firms that concentrate on collectivism lay special emphasis on larger objectives of the group and puts effort in promoting cooperation of employees to assist in meeting their collective goals.

Innovation requires great creativity realized from collectivism groups who come up with collective ideas that are useful and novel to the organisation. Firms employing collectivism as their culture encourage innovation through making use of their personal attributes such as autonomy, self-confidence and good personal judgement. In collectivism firms, employees are free to express their ideas since they are appreciated and corrected by their colleagues. Intertwining creativity and conformity some people become more creative compared to their counterparts and get fully involved in innovation practices which improves the business.  Authors assert that conducting group researches accumulates more ideas and comments on innovation practices.


            Collectivism cultures lead to conforming to pressures in the group thus promoting harmony and interdependence in the firm. However, individualist culture encourages independence in the group, retaining of positive ideas and views, and hence are not suitable where innovation is required(Hurley & Hult, 1998). . However, firms accommodating individualism cultures may carry out innovation practices better than collectivism firms. Group dynamics that make members follow instructions during innovation may turn out negatively on members (Lichtenthaler, Hoegl and Muethel, 2011). Group members are rewarding from their observations and also punishing and may avoid supporting ideas from a certain person gifted in innovation and thus kill innovation spirit in the organisation.

Tolerance for conflict and risk taking cultures help in solving impersonal Conflicts and encourage search of extra information and ideas to look for solutions (Goncalo & Staw , 2004). In the process employees, get new ideas to employ in their innovation processes. Conduction of benchmarking activities, provision of incentives such as materials and funds as well as support from employers improves the nature of the Company through innovation (Lichtenthaler, Hoegl and Muethel, 2011).





Goncalo, J., & Staw, B.(2004).Individualism-collectivism and group creativity. Organisational     behaviour and human decision processes, 100,96-109.

Hurley, R., & Hult, T. (1998). Innovation, market orientation, and organizational learning: an        integration and empirical examination. Journal of marketing, 1 (62), 42-54.

Lichtenthaler, U., Hoegl, M., & Muethel, M. (2011). Is your company ready for open innovation? MIT Sloan management review, 1 (53), 45-48.


Should hackers help the Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I)?

Should hackers help the Federal Bureau of Investigation (F.B.I)?

Hackers are commonly known as bad people and anarchists who aim at stealing confidential information from businesses, Companies, and personal computer devices. In addition, they have previously been known as threats to cyber security by U.S. intelligence services and other agencies that enforce the law. However, many software companies pay huge sums of money to hackers who succeed in finding and exploiting their vulnerabilities within their programs (Candy & Wang, 2006).Example one hackers firm has succeeded in cracking San Bernardino shooters iPhone without requesting for assistance from Apple’s Company. Moreover, their investigation solution will be taken to F.B.I. but not to Apple.

As a result, hackers and hacking business is a benefit and a loss and hacking is a general term referring to modification of computer hardware and software by hackers. Thus may have good intentions and bad intentions on computer systems and other internet-enabled devices. They are losses to people as they crack passwords of personal banking accounts, military networks, and infrastructure. Others are a benefit and should be given away by the government, since they patch established vulnerable attack sites before attackers intrude them and take advantage of the information obtained. To distinguish between good and bad hackers, it is important to explain different types of hackers and their work.

Types of hackers

White hat hackers

White hat hackers are good, ethical, and experts in security who do penetration testing among other methodologies to secure information systems of a company. They have no aim of performing malicious acts with obtained information. They are IT Professionals who rely on the evolving technology to identify and battle hackers (Singh &  Bhardwaj, 2011).

They aim at pushing their limits in analyses, shielding, and establishment of security figures. They are also referred as moral programmers since they determine the defensive nature of a set up currently. They perform defenseless appraisals and entrance tests.

Black hat hackers

Black hat hackers are bad skillful people who break into others computer systems and networks with a malicious intention of creating viruses using their knowledge of criminal activities for personal benefits. They take advantage of computers weak areas and exploit those (Singh & Bhardwaj, 2011). . They demonstrate qualities of white hat and grey hat hackers. They freely surf the internet in search of vulnerable frameworks to crack and misuse. They act as if advisers to the chair about the location of vulnerabilities found and hack the sites without getting approval from the boss. He may offer to repair and maintain helpless sites uncovered to make little changes. They struggle to outdo white hat hackers. They take advantage of human errors and laziness to input passwords attack vulnerable machines.

Script kiddie’s cracker

They are similar to black hat hackers who make use of borrowed programs in attacking networks and defacing websites in order to make names. They resemble amateur or simply non-expert hackers who use prepackaged automated scripts such as tools and software written by real hackers to break into people’s computer systems. They have little knowledge on the working of the scripts (Singh & Bhardwaj, 2011).  They are hackers motivated by politics and religion to revenge by exposing wrong doers and harassing their targets.

State sponsored hackers

They are hackers specifically owned by the state to control cyberspace security. They have much time and are well funded to identify target corporations, governments, and civilians.

Spy hackers

Spy hackers are hired by corporations and organizations to steal confidential trade information with an aim of infiltrating competition. They may act as outside hackers or are employed as mole. Their tactics resemble those of hachtivists with a single agenda of serving the goals of their clients for a payment.

Cyber terrorists

Cyber terrorists are motivated by political beliefs and religion with an attempt to create chaos and fear by interfering with infrastructure. They aim at spreading terror and committing murder. They are grey hat hackers who break into others computer security frameworks to innovate. They do not ask for approval from owners and perform criminal acts like theft, vandalism, fraud, and extortion of master cards. They convey worms and establish malignant destinations to meet their wishes.

Negative effects of hacking processes

White hat hackers and state sponsored hackers have positive effects to computer systems. Other remaining hacker’s especially black hat hackers have negative effects to systems. They cause copyright problems, viruses among other related issues. Software is easily downloaded illegally from the internet since it is digital and make numerous copies without requesting for approval from owners. Example include CD downloads from pirate bays. Hackers obtain copies of software download it, sell it, or give it away (Smith, 2002). They steal the codes and names of the software. Software is protected from piracy through inputting serial numbers, holograms, and license agreements. Serial numbers are unique and proves the originality of the software. Holograms indicate the genuine nature of the copy and are input in the packaging of the software. License agreements offer instructions to users on how they should legally use the product. They also indicate the agreed terms of use.

Computer viruses

Viruses are self-replicating programs created with a mission of damaging computer systems. They infect computer files by attaching copies of replicated copies into the computer. They are malicious in that they demonstrate annoying pop-up messages on the screen and cause the computer to slow down and crash (Bachman, 2014). They delete important files, programs, and attempt to access passwords, credit card numbers and bank details. Viruses infect computers by downloading files that are infected from the internet, attaching emails from infected files and through plugging flash memory sticks with infected files to the computer.

Preventing virus infections

The above software virus infections can be prevented by using up-to-date anti-virus software, using genuine copies of software, opening email attachments from trusted sources, scanning flash memory with anti-virus software before attaching into the computer. Lastly, downloading software from trusted legitimate websites  (Clarke, Clason & Cordell, 2003).

Hacking and hackers are prevented through installing firewalls, user-ID, and robust passwords and data encryption. Firewalls offer a shield between computers and internet and block unwanted data from hackers from infecting the computer (Bawane & Shelke, 2014). Moreover, computers cannot connect to unwanted websites. User-ID’s and robust passwords are word numbers, which identify specific users and log onto their computer systems. They give access to certain files in the computer. Robust passwords are hard to guess and are a combination of eight characters. Data encryption makes files in the system unreadable when users are not aware of passwords to UN-encrypt them. Viruses include Trojan horse programs, logic bombs and sniffer programs (Smith, 2002). Trojan horses are programs executed at the start of programs. Logic bombs activate after meeting a certain criteria. Sniffer programs collect information and intercept them with an aim of remotely operating other computers. Code red virus break data systems security and leave them vulnerable for hacker attacks.

Best practices to stop hacker attacks are to frequently change passwords and avoiding clicking on email links. Disabling all preview panes in boxes and reading emails in plain texts as well as not opening email attachments closes chances for hackers attacks (Bawane & Shelke, 2014). Moreover, users should disable java, JS and Activex and avoid displaying email addresses on the website. Computers should not be allowed to save passwords and upgrading security levels for internet explorer. Firefox and chrome should be switched off when not in use. Users should consider saying no to tasks for read authority on odd stuff connected to the internet, edit authorities, avoid reading and editing operations from other places than desktop folders and say no to application tasks for different authorities.

Benefits of hackers

Hackers are used by organizations to test the efficiency of the network, validate protection of confidential data and information. Hackers uncover possibility of loopholes and potential vulnerabilities available in a network that are harmful to an organization. Ethical hacking, white hat hacking and red team are terms used when testing for security in networks (Palmer, 2001). Ethical hackers find weak areas of security in a network and potential threats. They suggest potential measures required in checking critical conditions. Hackers create awareness on protection and security in all levels, identify vulnerabilities, and suggest security procedures that are effective for the threat. They support current and future IT activities.

Hackers are beneficial to firms and organization such as Twitter, New York Times, and Apple. They have established minor issues with data users and the organization. Moreover, all organizations are prone to attacks and cannot ignore the presence of hackers to penetrate perimeter of attack and gain the lost advantage. Professional hackers reduce the risk of attack by informing managers of possible attacks and implements possible measures. Hackers help organizations to identify importance of network security through their hacking experience (Palmer, 2001). They demonstrate ways that attackers can use to access resources of the company and use them. White hat hackers offer solutions to encrypt data, secure hardware, and use of anti-malware, firewalls, and anti-viruses. They conduct hacking algorithm to access confidential data repositories and resources of network lacking authentications. They afterward report possible threats found and offer solutions for the threats with an aim of securing resources of the organization and its perimeter.


Hackers have positive and negative effects to organizations and individual users. Hackers have a negative effect of intruding systems and causing harmful attacks such as viruses in computer systems. Hackers steal confidential information from systems such as credit card numbers and use them to steal people’s passwords for malicious practices. However, there are identified benefits of hackers in an organization; they are used to identify threats and vulnerable systems prior to attacks. They give solutions to posed threats and establish a long lasting security measure. As a result, white hat hackers should be employed in organizations and governments to identify presence of black hat hackers among other malicious hackers and thus help the actions of F.B.I. Identified ways of avoiding attacks such as using firewalls, support that white hat hackers should be included in the organization and government due to their expertise in prevention of attacks.



Smith, L. (2002).The Negative Impacts of Hacking. Congressman Lamar Smith 21st District Of    Texas. Retrieved From Https://Lamarsmith.House.Gov/Media-Center/Columns/The-  Negative-Impact-Of-Hacking

Palmer, C. C. (2001). Ethical Hacking.IBM Systems Journal, 3 (40), 769-781.

Bachman, M. (2014). The Risk Propensity and Rationality Of Computer Hackers. International    Journal Of Cyber Criminology, 1 (4), 1-14.

Singh, G., & Bhardwaj, M. (2011). Types of Hacking Attack and Their Counter Measure.             International Journal of Educational Planning and Administration, 1(1), 43-53.

Clarke, Z., Clason, J., & Cordell, M. (2003). Historical Approaches to Digital Media. LCC 6316.

Bawane, M., & Shelke, C. (2014). Analysis of Increasing Hacking And Cracking Techniques.       International Journal of Application Or Innovation Engineering And Management, 2(3), 1-4.

Candy, I., & Wang, T. (2006).Hackers, Users, Information Security. Workshop on The Economics           Of Information Security (WEIS), 1-22.



Interfaces Then and Now

Various changes have been undertaken in the development of HCI. And in 1980s, the HCI lacked specialized tools hence various individuals were not recognized as users such as the carpenters, artisans and blacksmiths among others. In addition, the 1980s HCI lacked proper speed as well as multitasking capacity to enable concurrent events to run at the same time. therefore, users could only operate one program at time.

In 1990’s, the most significant changes to the HCI was the development of World Wide Web, which recognized the need for browsing by the users. The most common tools included the Unix-style such as the ftp and telnet. In addition, it was in this periods that major changes took place regarding the display since the users could interact with data objects as icons.

In the 2000’s, the HCI has evolved into a vast as well as a multifaceted community that is surrounded by evolving concepts of usability. Further the HCI is integrated to value human activity as well as experience as the major drivers in technology. Currently, with improved HCI, the users can run several

How have computer interfaces for gaming changed during the same period of years? 

In the 1980’s, computer scientist developed simple computer games as well as simulations in the form of a research. Further into this periods, joysticks, buttons, and other controllers, were developed to aid in arcade video games as well as gaming consoles. In the late 1980’s, early online gaming was enabled as well as emergence of LCD games was initiated.

In 1990’s, the second generation of consoles in the form of 8-bit units, and later led to the emergence of consoles of 32-bits units. In the 2000’s, the sixth series of game consoles were developed. These currents have assumed huge graphical designs.


 Provide rationale to support you answer.

The computer games have undergone various changes because currently, the play stations are in every corner of the world, which is a product of the improvement in computer games. In addition, the current games that is part improving n the HCI that has improved the entertainment industry.



Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., &Preece, J. (2011). Interaction design: Beyond human-computer interaction (3rd ed). New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons

Sells and selling

Sales people are particularly vulnerable to moral corruption

The depiction of sales person as deceitful charlatans concerned only with closing sales and earning commissions

does little to enhance the professional image of the career and the majority of its practitioners deserve. Unfortunately we have regrettable experiences with salespersons such as those described in the opening vignettes. The historically negative stereotype of salespersons is however changing as many people begin to understand the key role that salesperson play in the economy. Yet, many companies still discourage the term salespersons from being printed on the business cards of their sales staff, preferring labels such as ‘client advisor’, ‘marketing representative’ or ‘business consultant’ to describe the sales functions.

Salespersons, it seem are especially vulnerable to moral corruption because they are subject to many temptations. In particular; because of the interpersonal nature of their work, they are exposed to greater ethical pressures than individuals in many other jobs; also because they work in relatively unsupervised settings; they are primarily responsible for generating the firms’ revenue, which at all times can be very stressful; they are regularly assessed in view of the transient goals.

There is consensual view across business disciplines that ethical sales behavior plays a significant role in determining financial performance, long-term viability and customer retention (Roman &Munuera, 2005; Roman & Ruiz, 205; Grisaffe& Jaramillo, 2007).

A typology of unethical sales behavior

According to Román and Ruiz (2005), ethical behavior in the sales relationship context denotes behaviors on the part of the salesperson that advance the welfare of the client.

Nevertheless, Román and Munuera (2005) defined ethical sales as conduct reasonable and legitimate activities that empower the sales representative to encourage long pull relationship with customers in perspective of shopper reliability and trust. Ethical sales behavior is an exceedingly subtle development and is frequently circumstance particular (Lagace et al., 1991).Be that as it may, unethical sales behavior as perceived by the customer is characterized as a short-run salesperson’s conduct that empowers him/her to gain at the expense of thecustomer for example, overstating about the advantages of an item/benefit, accessibility, the opposition and so on.

Examples of the standards they should strive towards to ensure ethical sales behavior

Salespersons should be able to help their customers make purchase decisions that will satisfy their needs and long-term satisfaction from a strong ethical perspective.

Morgan and Hunt (1994) suggest that trust and duty are both key to anticipating trade execution.Trust among the sales persons and the sales system is one of the most essential goals in the regulation and supervision of the sales markets (Masciandro et al., 2007; Grunbichler and Darlap, 2003; Hasan and Severiens, 2001).

Moreover, in the relationship advertising writing the idea of duty assumes a focal part, as it is a noteworthy normal for relationship promoting models (Alrubaiee&Alnazer, 2010). Commitment is the center of all fruitful working connections and that it is a fundamental ingredient in effective long haul connections (Anderson and Narus, 1990). Commitment has been operationalized in several ways, including craving to proceed with the relationship, ability to make transient penances, trust in the solidness of the relationship, and interests in the relationship (Kim & Frazier, 1997).

Thirdly, Customer loyalty is regarded as the commitment to rebuy a preferred product or service in the future despite there are situational influence and marketing efforts (Yim et al. 2008). Loyal customers may not be constantly fulfilled, but rather fulfilled clients are well-suited to be loyal (Fornell, 1992).


Alrubaiee, Laith. “Exploring the Relationship between ethical sales behavior, relationship quality, and customer loyalty.”International Journal of Marketing Studies 4.1 (2012): 7.


Business transactions

Business transactions today tend to borrow much into technology as technology has been used to enhance payments for various goods and services. There is electronic tagging and identification of products that are sold in stores whereas payment for the same can be done through electronic means. Technology is associated with errors just as any activity of mankind is and thus the possibility of various errors occurring. Groceries today have intensified the use of technology in stores where various groceries and tagged and stocked. There is always scanning at checkout points where the right prices for the same are determined. However, there are however problems experienced with scanning at check-outs as customers can pay less or more at these points due to a number of problems that could be prevented. This paper recognizes that poor lighting in grocery stores has been a major cause of the inaccuracies experienced as to check-out scanning at these stores and thus seeks to provide advice for work team in overcoming this problem associated with check-out scanning at groceries shops.
2.0 Black Belt Advice
It is important to carry out investigation on the side of groceries shop managers so as to determine exactly what causes mistakes at various check-out scanners in the groceries stores. This can be done by the managers sending personnel to thegroceries shop disguising themselves as customers so as to watch out exactly the circumstances around the scanner mistakes. In this case for example, the managers can direct those who they send out to watch out for issues like fatigue among grocery attendants, poor lighting, and heavy traffic of customers at certain times among other factors.

There are various phases that groceries managers have to go through in solving a problem and in this case as it is to check-out scanner mistakes, the problem has to be defined first and in the case of which it is defined as poor lighting at check-out points leading scanner mistakes whereby clients are charged more or less without their knowledge. From this point is the measurement phase whereby there are attempts at establishing the extent of such a problem. One of the best ways to see through the measurement phase is to establish the frequencies within which check-out scanner mistakes occur in cases of poor lighting at the check-out points and use various tools to represent the same in line graphs and error bars so as to enhance easier decision making processes as to the same problem.
Since the undertaking in the groceries shops is to find out the major cause of scanner mistakes at check-out points, groceries managers should commission research on the same seeking specific data so as to aid in finding of a solution to remedy the same. The research commences with suspicions that poor lighting is the root cause of the several scanner mistakes that lead to undercharging or overcharging of customers. Thus establishing the same should be aided by collection of data relating to what point in time do mistakes at check-out scanners occur more often. This could include times when the employees handling the scanners at check-out points are fatigued, when the numbers of customers visiting the stores are extremely high or when the lighting is poor; especially in the evening hours. The frequencies of mistakes at various points when research is carried out should also be noted so as to establish the most probable cause of check-out scanner mistakes at groceries shops by the managers.
As discussed previously, the data collected by groceries managers can be analyzed by various means which could include the use of data analysis tools such as line graphs and error graphs. This will bring out clearly the frequencies within which check-out scanner errors occur in a store under various circumstances and thus earmark the one that needs to be urgently attended to, which for this case is poor lighting at check-out points within the groceries stores.
3.0 Cautions
There are a number of problems that can be experienced in the cause of collecting data so as to establish the reason as to check-out scanner errors are witnessed in groceries shops. There are certain errors that should be watched out for in the process of data collection so as to have accurate results and caution should be taken to ensure that these errors do not result into incorrect results which again lead to poor decisions.
Among such errors include coverage error. The research in this case aims at finding out what factors leads to the highest cases of check-out scanner mistakes in groceries shops. This error occurs in the sense that it may not be quite clear as to what factor leads to scanner mistakes and just to elaborate; poor lighting is a characteristic of evening moments and at this time, fatigue sets in on attendants at check-out points. It thus may be unclear at times to establish as to whether an error made is due to the poor lighting in the grocery store or due to fatigue of the attendant.
In order to ensure scanner-operator accuracy improvements as aided by research as to establishing what exactly causes the inaccuracies, caution needs to be taken to ensure that possible research errors are avoided. This in this case can be done by researchers only recording data that are most appropriate and leaving out those that there are trust issues with. What should be looked out at should be homogeneity in the data.

Matta, V., & Moberg, C. (2006). The development of a research agenda for RFID adoption and effectiveness in supply chains. Issues in Information Systems, 7(2), 246-251.

Operations Management

The gap between the current and the required performance of the organizational operation should be assessed by use of the Gap Analysis which entails three key steps. This analysis is very useful when beginning a project and in the development of a Business Care as it is essential in the identification of the tasks that need to be completed in an organizational setting for the laid down objectives to be achieved. For instance, in the Progressive County Department of Children Services (PCDCS) in the United States is an agency that focuses on achieving its strategic outcomes. For it to improve on its operations, the following three steps should be followed in assessing its current and future performance so as to realize the set objectives (Behnam 27).

In assessing of the current performance, certain key considerations have to be made. They include, identifying individuals or other organizations that have the knowledge that is needed as well as individuals and organizations needed to be spoken to so as to obtain a good picture of the current situation. Also, an organization should come up with mechanisms to determine whether the organizational information and details is in people’s heads or it is documented in a different place. The best way to get this information should also be sought, be it through one to one interviews, brainstorming workshops, reviewing of documents, doing some observations on activities of the organization such as design workshops or any other suitable way. In the case of PCDCS, it needs to determine whether the current labour force is in a position to fully adapt to the new model of service delivery. It needs to do away with some of the Welfare Caseworkers who are a poor fit to the current duties assigned to them. There has been low morale and a high turnover which calls for incentives to boost the workers morale such as salary remuneration and further training to help them execute their duties to perfection. In (Behnam 33), this training will acquaint the staff with means of adapting to the new and updated model of service delivery. In identifying of future state, the organization needs to identify its future state through identifying the objectives that need to be achieved. This is important as it gives the company its future state that is where it wants to be which is stated in its organizational goals and objectives in a specified period of time (Behnam 36).

When comparing current and target performance, it is advisable for the organization to identify or improvise means on how to bridge the gap. Once the organization knows its future state and current situation, the remaining obligation is thinking on what is needed to bridge this gap and reach its set objectives. So as to establish a link between the current situation and a future one that will see the organization grow, a competency assessment needs to be carries which will determine the competencies that will be needed under the new F2F mode which is also more likely to be modified in future. A staffing assessment will also be appropriate to help in determining the quantity of staff that is needed under the new F2F model. Also, identifying the gaps that exist between the needed competencies and the ones that are currently possessed by the staff as well as gaps between current and future levels of staffing will help the organization in working on how to improve its performance in future. Workers to be employed also need to be well versed with the organization’s strategic plan and its business requirements that are ever changing (Behnam 35).

Work Cited

Behnam, Malakooti. Operations and Production Systems with Multiple Objectives.John Wiley & Sons.2013: Pp. 22 −37. USA. Print.


Group Analysis Summary – Survey Data- Boeing Service

The questionnaire seeks to get respondents feedback on whether he has flown on a Boeing Aircraft before, with majority(95.24 %) having had travelled aboard a Boeing aircraft and very few (4.76 %) having not  travelled aboard a Boeing Aircraft. For those that have travelled, the researchers in the second question seek to know the Boeing model used in flying, with majority having used 747(26. 83%), followed by those having boarded 737 (24.39 %),777(21.95 %), 767 and 787 having tied at a 12.20 % and finally those not having any Boeing craft still remaining (2.44 %). The following question on how comfortable the cabin seats have been, majority (28. 57 %), and a proportion comprising 12 out of the total population found it comfortable, with only a few (2.38 %), that is one out of the 42 respondents finding the cabin seats not comfortable. Among those who boarded the aircraft, majority (30.95 %), found the services inside the aircraft to be good, whereas a few (2.38 %) found them not favourable. Majority still found the inflight entertainment quite entertaining, whereas a negligible (2.38 %) found the entertainment not much intriguing. On the question of whether there were plenty of movies, TV Shows and games, among the total 42, a majority (59.52%) of those who have boarded the craft gave a positive response, whereas 28.57 % did not find these entertainment facilities in the craft. On whether there was food and drinks provided in the Boeing aircraft, majority (64.29 %) gave positive responses, whereas 33.33 % were not provided with food and drinks. On the rating of the noise factor on the Boeing aircraft, only 30.95 % found the environment noisy and a small 2.38 % found it not too much noisy out of the total 42 respondents (Kopper, 2004).

Advantages ofquestionnaires include; Questionnaires, as evident from the market research can be analysed in a more objectively and scientifically way than other research forms. In cases of quantified data, questionnaires can be used in comparing and contrasting other researches and may be used in measuring change in certain phenomena. In (Kopper, 2004), the method has the following demerits as well; it can be inadequate to understand certain forms of information that is emotional changes, feelings and behaviour. According to phenomenologists, quantitative research is just an artificial creation by the researcher because it only asks a limited amount of information with giving necessary information. When using this method, there is also no way of telling how much though a respondent has put in. At times, the respondent may be forgetful or not think within the full situational context. People may also read the questions differently and therefore give replies on the basis of their own interpretation of the question, that is that which pleases someone ay not please the other, therefore, a certain level of subjectivity is not acknowledged when using this method (Timothy, 2005).



Kopper, K., (2004) The Logic of Scientific Discovery, Routledge, Taylor & Francis. Print.

Timothy R. G.,(2005) “Response Bias,” Encyclopaedia of Social Measurement, ScienceDirect. Print.



Strategic planning

Strategic planning in as regards to budget and finance and administration in public health involves as series of actions which include setting of priorities, collection and direction of resources and strengthening of operations towards a desired goal or goals as regards to public health(Kongstvedt, 2012).. Strategic planning shapes, guides and ascertain results for every undertaking within a context and in this case; in the context of public health(Bryson, 2012).

There are a number of phases involved in strategic planning. These are not definite to strategic planning, as organizations and operations may adopt strategic planning as directed by various goals that an organization/undertaking seeks to achieve(Hughes, 2012). For budget, finance and administration as regards to public health, the below directions can be adopted to enhancestrategic planning(Denhardt et al, 2013).

  • Analysis –At this stage, the present state of events is established. This aids in understanding what sector of public health requires what in terms of budget allocation, finances and even administration.
  • Strategy formulation –a strategy as to budget, finance and administration in public health is developed at this stage. This should include documentation of the strategy as the strategy as it should at this stage should be at the highest level.
  • Strategy execution – At this stage,the documented strategic plan is transformed into a sort of operational plan and action oriented plan whereby aspects of the same are tried to engage practicability and suitability for aiding the course in public health.
  • Strategy Management –This is more of a refining stage where a strategy is refined based on results from the previous phase/stage. This involves orientation of cultures, data, communication and any other issue integral to undertaking to ensure that the take-off is effective and that the best results are realised in public health.



Bryson, J. M. (2012). Strategic Planning and. The SAGE Handbook of Public Administration, 50.

Hughes, O. E. (2012). Public management and administration. Palgrave Macmillan.

Denhardt, R. B., Denhardt, J. V., & Blanc, T. A. (2013). Public administration: An action orientation. Cengage Learning.

Kongstvedt, P. R. (2012). Essentials of managed health care. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.


Long Beach

Long Beach is a city seventh largest city in Los Angeles in Southern California. Long Beach is home to over 460,000 people from different ethnicities in the United States. Long Beach is consisted of many different neighborhoods. Before getting to the Long Beach the diversity is clear. There are people of different ethnic groups even though the boundaries are not officially recognized by the city council. There are no obvious separations between the communities but they change rapidly as one moves into the neighborhood. The difference in the dressing modes and the groups of people on the pathways is what informed the decision about the diversity of the people in the region.

As stated earlier Long Beach is one of the most diverse cities in the U.S in terms of ethnicity and culture. Long Beach has been named a ‘ghetto’ city due to its diversity. There are no clear signs of diversity or minority groups. The streets are full of people of different diversity from male to women to children. The city is known to be one of the veteran cities and it is therefore common to see old people on the streets. Most of these people were housed here after the World War II and it is a common thing to see them on the streets. The sight of sketchy people on the streets is also one of the reasons as to why the city was named ‘ghetto’ city. The rate of crime is high especially along the beach and many people tend to avoid the area.

There are many types of public transportation that is offered in the long beach especially for the visitors who come to visit places of interest. Long Beach transit offers public transport which operates 34 bus routes and nearly 2000 nus stops, (Long Beach Transit, 2016). Majority of the buses start and end their journeys at Long Beach Transit Mall. The Transit Company also runs Passport shuttle that carries passengers to places of interest for free. The Aqualink and AquaBus transport visitors and locals around during the summer time serving in specific locations. The area also has a rail that connects Los Angeles and the Long Beach.

The availability of the public transport enables the journey to the stores and supermarkets easier. The market and supermarkets however are located within walking distance and one can easily walk to the store and back home. Doing shopping in the area is not as difficult because the products are brought closer to home. Depending on what side of Long Beach you live in, the conditions of living in the neighborhood is different. Like any other place, there is diversity in the types of neighborhoods available. Generally speaking however, the place is quite welcoming and the people here are so friendly. There is the warmth of a community that makes you feel welcome every time you are in the city.

According to the 2010 census, the Long Beach had approximately 462, 257 people. The majority of the people in the area are white at 46.1 percent followed closely by theHispanic community at 35.1 percent, African American communities at 13.5 percent and 12.9 percent Asian while the rest make up the smallest percentage of the population. Majority of the housing in the area are rented even though more than 40 percent of the houses are owned. This means that he majority of the people here do not own their own homes but live in rented houses. The houses in this area are also different depending on the type of neighborhood one is in. There are some classy houses that house a family while others are good enough to house single people. The architecture in the area is however amazing and quite attractive.

Long Beach is 26th in ranking among the seventy U.S cities in terms of poverty, (LBCAP, 2016). At least 22.8 percent of the residents in Long Beach live in poverty with majority of this percentage being children under the age of five. The unemployment levels are quite high but the government is working towards correcting the unemployment levels. Most people are employed in schools and universities and that is where most of them get their income from. The tourism industries is also one of the industries that employs people because the area has a lot of tourist attraction sites. The health sector is also another industry that employs majority of the population in the area.

In terms of religion, most people in Long Beach are religious with most of them being Christian. This is clear with the presence of many catholic churches and other churches that are affiliated with Christianity. The Jews are also make part of the religious community in the area. This is to mean that there are many religions in the area but it is dominated by Christians.

There are many recreational places in the Long Beach. There are museums, parks, beaches and hotels. An example is the RMS Queen Mary which is docked here. There are over ninety two parks featuring fishing lakes, bike trails and even picnic areas. The Long Beach GreenBelt is a section that harbors over 40 species of the native species and urban wildlife. Communities here are educated about the land and the native species as they enjoy the fresh air from this area.  Other recreational activities include sports. The area is very well known for its sporting activities including basketball, water skiing, sailing and baseball among others.

Long Beach suffers from one of the worst cases of pollution in the United States. The presence of the twin ports in Los Angeles and Long Beach cause air pollution. The pollution comes from the ships themselves, bunker fuel and heavy diesel pollution coming from drayage trucks at the port. The air in Long Beach is filled with refinery products and it is not so good to smell. The water in Long Beach is also unsafe for swimming or consumption. Waste from Los Angeles is swept into the harbor making the water insecure and good for human consumption.



Long Beach Transit (2016)

Long Beach Community Action Partnership (2016) “Long Beach Poverty Statistics”


Management – Gung Ho Film (1986)


The Gung Ho Film in 1986 is a significant film in elaborating the concepts of multiculturalism and diversity in the modern management environments.  Michael Keaton the stir of the film and the American wheel dealer believes that he has the potential to rescue Pennsylvania which is a small town by requesting the Japanese automobile manufacture to acquire the automobile assembly factory that is failing in the town. He is therefore sent to Japan to encourage the Japanese to acquire the factory out of mutual interest (Keaton, 12). The movie is based on how the Americans and the Japanese cultures integrate in order to ensure that the factory runs smoothly. As a matter of fact, both the Japanese and American cultures and differences hinder smooth management and working within the factory as a result of cultural differences. Nevertheless, the movie ends on a positive note when the Americans and the Japanese manage to work together in the factor to attain the factory production target. The role of the work is to illustrate the concepts of multicultural and diversity and how they are emerging in the modern management environments.

The concepts of multiculturalism and diversity in the modern management environments

In the modern business reality, successful managers are required to have the necessary skills and competence in order to deal with multicultural differences within the organization. Hung Ho film is a good example that illustrates effective managers understands the multiple cultures which exist within the organization.  An organization operating in foreign country is likely to be faced by multicultural aspects such as: ethnicity, national, professional and religious cultures. Instead of the managers considering the multicultural differences and diversity as a problem within the organization, they must take it as a challenge of developing new knowledge and skills.  Understanding of the multicultural skills and diversity will definitely enable the managers to handle the cultural differences in a synergetic and sensitive ways. Adoption of these new ways of management would enable them to ensure that the organization remain competitive.

It is important for the managers in most of the organization to understand business in the modern time has basically changed and it is good to be concerned with the cross-cultural management which caused by the forces of globalization. The political, technological, social and economical development in the workplace has shown the importance of the managers looking beyond the aspect of culture within the organization. As a matter of fact, culture is a social phenomenon which is created by the members of a certain group instead of just inherited. Once a culture in an organization is in existence it usually influences the actions, thought, feeling and perceptions in a manner that is consistent with the group’s cultural reality. The culture normally directs the basic assumptions and understands of a particular group in the organization as indicated in the film Gung Ho.

Moreover, different people within an organization are more likely to exhibit different multicultural differences depending on the aspects at hand. Factors such as liking, proximity, interaction, threats, goal sharing, common history and interpersonal interaction are more likely to influence multicultural and diversity in the organization hence it is the role of the management to establish the appropriate managerial skills to use in order to influence the choice of the members of the organization. Basically, as seen from the Gung Ho film, the organizational and regional cultural differences are more likely to be stronger that the national differences.

The importance of recognizing and responding to racial, ethnic, and other demographic factors

The multicultural differences and diversities associated with nationality, ethnicity, religion, racial and demographic factors necessitate the managers to come up with different managerial skills and knowledge which bridge the national culture differences.  The understanding of the multicultural perspective assists the management within these organizations to address the difficulties and the challenges associated with the organizational mergers and acquisitions, strategic alliance and business franchising across the globe. For instance, Despite the fact that in the Gung Ho film there was a mix up of Japanese and American culture the Japanese company which had acquired another company in America managed to succeed because the management was able to integrate the necessary managerial skills in controlling the national culture and multicultural differences and diversity into the organization. By the managers understand and guiding the employees of the organizations in positively deal with multicultural differences and diversities, the organization would manage to generate the necessary synergies to drive the organization forward and successfully as expected and promised.

The synergy within the organization may not only happen through multicultural teams but it may also occur in terms of the national culture. The organizational synergy in dealing with multicultural teams, differences and diversity necessitates the management to work actively in development teams which are based on appreciation and tolerance of the differences. Multicultural differences and diversity suggest that if the management can be adjusted for power, the cognitive diversities within the organization may have a positive impact upon the organization’s performance.  The aspect was evidenced in the Gung Ho film when the Japanese automotive assembly managed to succeed in America despite the fact that there were ethnic, cultural, religious and racial differences of the employees who were working for the organization (Keaton, 14). The management of the national cultural differences and various diversities within the organization the Japanese factory management manage to attain the factory production target and success. Based on this argument, the management of various organizations operating in foreign countries needs to understand the current global business reality of appreciating multiple cultures which simultaneously exists together. Instead of the organization managers viewing the multicultural differences and diversities as a problem in the modern businesses, it is important for the managers to develop new skills and approaches in dealing and handling the differences in synergetic and sensitive way.

What Gung Ho Film offer to the discussion

The Gung Ho Film present the organization management issues associated multicultural differences and diversities such as: racial, ethnicity, religious and demographic factors. The film present the challenges faced by the Japanese automobile assembly factory which acquired a factor in America. Apart from facing the national cultural differences in the country, the factory also faced the internal cultural diversities. Nevertheless, the Japanese automobile assembly company managed to succeed and to bring success to an American factory that was failing (Keaton, 17).The prosperity of the Japanese Assembly Company, revealed to the world that through the appropriate managerial skills and experience, the organization management might be in position to success in the global market despite the multicultural differences and diversities.


Based on the Gung Ho Film, the Japanese culture understood the needs of collaborating the racial, gender and cultural needs of all the employees within the organization in order to make the organization to prosper and to achieve production target. Unlike the American automobile assembly company that was failing to facilitate the multicultural differences and diversities within its organization, the Japanese driven automobile assembly company acquired by the Japanese was regarded to be successful (Keaton, 23). The success of the assembly company acquired by the Japanese was a clear illustration that it is possible for the modern organizations and business to acquire the appropriate managerial skills and knowledge to deal with multicultural differences and diversities within the organization and in a country to attain productivity target and organizational goals.


Work Cited

Keaton, M. Gung Ho Film: The world of business in movies. 2008. New York Publishers.