Common wealth funding

Can the Commonwealth take over responsibility for funding public transport in Australia? Why or why not?

Common wealth is open to funding public transport in Australia through investing in critical rail, and urban buses infrastructure. Investment in transport industry improves productivity, creates jobs and facilitates supply of goods and services.  It has recently identified 12 projects in 2015 submission to infrastructure Australia (IA) majoring in south East Queensland. Projects include upgrading Bruce highways, Beerburrum to Nambour rail upgrade, cross-river rail, Gold coast light rail-stage 2, Ipswich motorway, Cunningham highway, pacific motorway, and inland rail (Urban development institute of Australia (Queensland) 2016).

Commonwealth will take over responsibility for funding public transport in Australia because it is a constitutional responsibility under section 96. In addition, it has capacity to financially support states and territories in areas such as roads, education, and health. It has strong influence over provision of infrastructure in ways such as availing funds to territories and states in specific purpose payments (Laird & Bachels 2001).

It is involved in formulating policies such as provision of taxation and national competition and accumulates money through investments by government business enterprises and agencies (GBEs). In support, the commonwealth accounted for quarter public infrastructure in 1990s, which was provided by GBEs directly. In 20002003 the funds amounted to over $2.5 billion where road programs were highest funded with $977 million (Webb 2004).

Common wealth has the capability of funding public transport in Australia through formulation of policies favoring improvement of transport sector. Common wealth approves the use of untied identified road grants from states and payments done as tied block grants. Commonwealth funding on roads is determined by the contexts of the budget without considering revenue raised from specific taxes, road competes expenditure among other expenses.

Commonwealth is responsible of determining road funds on a yearly basis through long term planning and regulating road construction costs. Moreover, common wealth has added greater certainty to people by considering a funding approach of a three-year period. Common wealth has continuously funded roads and built trust with people on road constructions. It has provided grants to four road categories, National highways, state arterials, national arterials, and local roads in early 1990s. Common wealth provided financial assistance to local governments to construct state arterials and local roads. Between 1990 and 1991, common wealth funded three road programs, the black spot, rural highways, provincial cities, and transport programs in urban public sections (Webb 2000).

The House of Representatives in Australia has reviewed common wealth’s involvement in public funding in 1990 and gave the following recommendations on roads. It decided to concentrate with funding national road networks, untie local roads grants, and incorporate them into assisting local governments otherwise identified as “identified road grants.”  Moreover, it aims at untying state road grants and incorporates them to assist in general revenue to states “identified road grants.” Further changes include ceasing Australian centennial roads development program, introducing reintroduction of black spot program and introduction and ceasation of provincial cities and rural highways program (Webb 2000). It concentrates on introducing roads of national importance and offering additional funds through one national statement.



Rationalizing responsibilities

Originally common wealth use to give grants to the states to construct and maintain roads under Australian Centennial roads development (ACRD) program. Funds were also offered for transport research and conduction of road safety programs as well as public transport projects in expectation of greater results (Webb 2004). However, changes occurred in category of roads under ALTP and ABRD programs as urban arterial roads, rural arterial roads, local roads, national highway, and development roads. Grants were allocated as per respective category of roads. National arterial roads qualified for the name after the minister for transport was satisfied that it would be competitive in export and import industries and improve tourism sector.

Construction of such roads had to bring high benefit cost ratios to the nation. As a result, funds allocated to each road depended on category given. Example funds allocated to national arterials were only used for construction and upgrading (ARA 2014). Commonwealth has all along taken the responsibility of constructing national road networks, with local and state governments left to fund state and local roads. National highway system is major highways that link territory and state capitals. Example Bruce highway from Brisbane to Cairns and highway joining Hobart to Burnie.

Road programs

Common wealth has continuously funded road programs such as provincial cities and rural highways program, black spot program, and urban transport program. Provincial cities and rural highways program is financed from consolidated revenue. The mission of funding these roads was to generate a source of economic return (Webb 2004). Blackspot program was introduced to maintain road safety in states and territories. Commonwealth has spent $110 million in three years to maintain a site that has been the major causes of injuries to pedestrians, and fatal vehicle accidents. From onsite constructions, accidents reduced by over two and a half.

Urban public transport program was aimed at improving transport in urban sectors, and encourage motorists to switch to public transport.



Webb, R 2004, “The commonwealth government’s role in infrastructure provision.”  Research      paper   no.8, 2003-2004.

Urban development institute of Australia (Queensland) 2016, “ Commonwealth open to public     transport infrastructure funding for the states.”  News and publications. Retrieved from         transport-infrastructu

ARA 2014, “A review of alternative, sustainable funding and financing sources”. Innovating        funding and financing for public transport, 7(1), 1-28.

Webb, R 2000, “Economics commerce and industrial relations group”. Common wealth road        funding since 1990. Retrieved from              brary/pubs/rp/rp9900/2000RP13

Laird, P., & Bachels, M  2001, “Back on track: Rethinking transport policy in Australia and New Zealand. Australia: UNSW press.

How the immune system respond to cancer cells

Human’s body is a complex structure that is able to protect itself against infections caused by parasites, viruses, fungi or bacteria and other forms of illness. This forms the basic function of the immune system in a human body. Immune response is the process whereby a body’s immune system experiences several responses and reactions in order to destroy the cells and pathogens that cause infection and illness.

Cancer cells being malignant in nature they can cause the immune system of human body to weaken and then fight back. The most important part of this paper is to describe the response of a human body’s immune system in case of an attack from a cancerous cell. The main function of an immune system is to fight infection that so that exactly what it does when confronted with cancer cells.

When a cell of human body immune system detects cancer cells in the body, it normally considers them as abnormal cells and launches an attack against them. However in most cases, immune system is not able to eradicate cancer cells effectively. Immune system in a human body can either protect the body naturally or due to earlier exposure to the disease causing pathogens of the infection.

In natural immunity, the immune system cells are at all times prepared to provide the human body with defense in case of attack from disease causing pathogens. The immune system when working under innate condition, it is able to act swiftly whenever the human body is under attack.

Causes of innate immunity system to the human body include:

Mucus produced on the linings of lungs and guts which then trap infectious cancer cells therefore preventing them from destroying the targeted part of the body.

The human skin creates a protective barrier for the human body against the cancer cells

Neutrophils which are components of the white blood cells in the human body system detect and attack cancer cells with an aim of destroying them as a natural defense.

Studies have proven that innate immune system has failed to protect the body of a human being fully from cancer cells. However, it would be wrong to make a conclusion that the body of cancer patient does not receive any protection from natural immune system.

Neutrophils as we have discussed earlier form that part of the white blood cells which fight any disease causing pathogens in human body. Whenever there is a pathogen detected by the human immune system, the neutrophils rush to the areas where infections have been detected. Upon reaching the pathogen, the neutrophils launch an attack on it with an aim of weakening it first of all before destroying it completely. If the neutrophils are successful in their endeavor, they then engulf them and then kill them completely using its natural chemicals. It is hard to imagine life without white blood cells especially the neutrophils because we could have been exposed to pathogens and several of us could have perished. An average normal human being should have a neutrophils count in a range of 2,000 to 7,500 in each and every cubic millimeter of his/her blood. When the count reduces below the recommended range, then such a person becomes susceptible to infections and illness such as cancer cells. The main duty of a cancer cells is mutate and then engulf neutrophils in the white blood cells.

The next type of immunity system that applies to a human body is widely known as the acquired immunity. This immune system protects the human body from diseases and infections that it had earlier been exposed. Human body is able to detect an infection or pathogen on its first entrance to the body and form antibodies to fight it in case it attacks the body once more. This kind of immunity does not apply to cancer cells because they are malignant in nature and have perfected the art of mutation. Due to this complex nature, they are able form shapes that resemble those of antibodies. When the antibodies approach such cancer cells they are attacked, engulfed and then destroyed completely reducing the white blood cells count. The cells that form the antibodies are T-cells and B-cells.

When cancer cells are introduced into the human body there are three key main cells that determine the human immune system response are the three and they form the main components of antibodies. These cells constitute the actual process of natural immunity of a body. Antigen Presenting Cells in the immune system are able to identify and carry the foreign antigens introduced during immunotherapy treatment of cancer cells and transport them to the T-cells. T-cells start to be replicate upon activation by the Antigen Presenting cells to become effective cells. These cells are able to fight and minimize the malignant nature of the cancer cells.

In summary the immune system of a human body responds through its antibodies which form part of the white cells when cancer cells invade the body.



Abbas AK, Lichman AH (2011). Basic Immunology

Drake CG (2010), Nat Rev Immunol, 10 (8), 593

De Viser, K.E, Eichten, A, & Coussens, L.M (2006). Paradoxical Immune system during cancer development, nature reviews cancer, 6(1), 24-37

Mullins DW, Sheasley SL, Restifo NP, Bull TNJ, FU Y-X, Engelhard VH, (2003). EXP Med, 198(7), 1023-1034

Kirkwood JM, Butterfield L.H, Tarhini AA, Zarour H, Kalinski P, Ferrone S, (2012), CA Canc. Clin, 62, 309-335

Klebanoff CA, Gattinnoni L, Restifo NP, (2006).Immunol Rev, 211, 214-224

Murphy K, Travers P, Walport M, (2008). Immunology. Garland Science Taylor and Frances Group, LLC,NewYork

Namm JP, Li Q, Lax X, et al (2012). J surg oncol. 105, 431-435

Sharma P, Wagner K, Wolchok JD, Allisor, (2011), Nat Rev Cancer, 11, 805-812

Ribas A, Butterfield L.H, Glaspy JA, (2003). Econs Js. Jclin Oncol, 21, 2415-2432


Patient Handout: Diabetes


Diabetes defines a condition wherebythe body does not produce enough insulin or cannot utilize its insulin as well as it should. It results to sugar building up in the body, and that’s why it’s majorly referred as “sugar disease”. Diabetes if not checked well can cause severe health complications including

  • kidney failure,
  • lower extremity amputations,
  • Blindness and heart disease among many others.

Diabetes ranks very high among the illness that causes death in the United States hence the need to educate public about this disease (Huff, 2011).

Audience to be addressed

The audiences to be addressed in this scenario areadult medicine clinic patients. Among the adult patient include the diverse Population-African American, SpanishAmerican Indians Americans as well as Asian Americans.

Health issue

Among adults, numerous health issues affect their risk acquiring this disease, heart disease, and stroke. Some of them are things you have control over like:

  • weight and how much you can exercise

Others you totally don’t have control over like

  • family history,
  • Age,but simply being aware of them it can aide to take necessary control measures to lower the risk (Huff, 2011).

As one’s ages, the risks of type 2 diabetes, stroke and heart disease increases. It can only be controlled by;

  • Eating healthy; doing lots of exercise as there nothing you can do about getting old.
  • Visit your doctor regularly on issues about cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose levels checkup.

Also, people of different races and ethnic groups are likely to develop type 2diabetes,heart disease and stroke (McGonigle & mastrian, 2015). Mexicans Americans, African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans have high risks for this particular illness. It’s because; partly this population is more likely to be overweight.

Gender slightly plays a role on likelihood to get diabetes; men are at high risk of getting heart disease as compared to female while when female gets to menopause, their risk of heart disease goes up (McGonigle & mastrian, 2015).

Types of diabetes

Type 1 diabetesit’salso known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes (Huff, 2011). This account for 5 percent to 10percent of all cases diagnosed with diabetes. Environmental factors and genetic are well involved in the development of this type. It results from pancreas failure to produce required insulin.

Type 2 diabetes it’s also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes(Huff, 2011).  It starts with insulin resistance where cells fail to respond to insulin the right way. Risk factors for this type include

  • obesity,
  • The family history of the disease,
  • older age,
  • Prior history of gestational diabetes,
  • Physical inactivity,as the disease progress, lack of insulin is developed.

Among expectant mothers, gestational diabetes develops in 2 to 5 percent of all pregnancies, but it usually disappears after giving birth. Gestational diabetes also occurs more frequently in African Americans and people from a family with the diabetic history. A female who suffered gestational diabetes before is at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes at a later date.

Symptoms of diabetes

Diabetes is detected through observing various symptoms, among them, are;

  • Frequent urination i.e. your bladder is not able to hold urine for long.
  • Increased thirst and hunger and
  • Unexplained weight loss may follow which significantly interferes with the health of the person.
  • Sudden vision changes which interfere with sight,
  • Numbness of hands and feet,
  • Scorched skin,
  • Sores that are slow to heal and more infections than usual.
  • Stomach pains, vomiting or nausea, may accompany some of these symptoms in the abrupt onset of insulin of insulin-dependent diabetes.

Among major body organs affected by diabetes

  • Major organs in the body can be severely be damaged by type 1 diabetes, for example, Heart and blood vessel diseases are at high risk of developing cardiovascular problems including narrowing of arteries and coronary artery with a disease with chest pain (McGonigle & mastrian, 2015). Excessive sugar can injure the walls of capillaries that nourish your nerves, especially in the legs a condition called neuropathy or nerve damage. This result to tingling of feet, numbness or pain that begins at the toe tips and gradually spreads upward.
  • Kidney; Diabetes can also cause damage in kidney filtering system resulting in its failure.
  • Eye; Diabetes can injure blood vessels in the retina, potentially leading to eye injury or eye blindness.

High blood sugars can also endanger the life of mother and baby during pregnancy increasing the risk of miscarriage, birth defects, and stillbirth (Huff, 2011).

In type 2 diabetic scenarios, people with this condition make insulin, but their cells do not utilize it well as they should (McGonigle & mastrian, 2015). Initially, the pancreas produces more insulin to try to get glucose into the cells, but eventually, it cannot keep up and the sugar levels builds up in the body system instead. Some of the cause of this is bad communication between cells I.e., at times, cells send wrong signals or simply don’t pick up information correctly(Taylor, 2011). Others include obesity and too much glucose from the liver.

Prevention and treatment

Diabetes can typically be prevented and also treated. Treatment includes

  • diet control and doing lots of exercises,
  • regular blood glucose testing, and
  • Oral medication.
  • People with type 2 diabetes require insulin injection.

Physical activity can significantly lower the risk of developing type 2 diabetes as it’smajorly associated with obesity, (Herman, 2015). The diabetes community has three choices in response to increasing health burden of diabetes: prevent, cure diabetes and take better care of people living with diabetes to avoid its devastating complications.

How to Identify Websites and Resources with Credible Information On the Issue

The following websites are links that upon taping would give information on diabetes s as the issue on discussion. They include

Taylor, R. (2011). Reversing type 2 diabetes. Practical Diabetes, 28(9), 377-378a.

Herman, W. (2015). The cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention: results from the Diabetes Prevention Program and the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study. Clin Diabetes Endocrinol, 1(1).

AHRQ,. (2015). Diabetes Disparities Among Racial and Ethnic Minorities | AHRQ Retrieved 8 April 2015, from

Virginia, A. (2014). Diabetes Among Hispanics: All Are Not EqualAmerican Diabetes Association. Retrieved 24 July 2014, from



Huff, C. (2011). Does your patient really understand? H&HN, 85(10), 34. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

Taylor, R. (2011). Reversing type 2 diabetes. Practical Diabetes, 28(9), 377-378a.

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2015). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (3rd ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett




What is life?

The definition or understanding of life is one norm that has got interesting variable answers in branches of chemistry, biology and genetics.It is living organisms that have life. The answer given by each of the different branches will greatly vary. Life is something that it complex and highly organized. Something that has life has the ability to take in energy from energy and transform its growth and production. Life is reproductive, that is, to multiply. Christopher Chyba in an article ‘Origins of Life and Evaluation of the Biosphere,’argues that trying to define life would be a mistake. He depicted that definitions are aimed to tell meaning of words and not the nature of the world. As such, defining life entails the nature and not the meaning.

Various theories exist that try to derive the origin of ‘life’ and what may be the real meaning of life. A good example is the Freeman Dyson’s double origin theory which states that an initial protein produced an RNA world as a by-product due to an increased sophisticated process of metabolism. The RNA started out as an obligatory parasite of the protein world and eventually produced the cooperative schema and hence resulted to the life that exist today.

Chemistry expertsprofound that life evolved from reactions that include hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen cyanide and ultraviolet light as the constituents of life. They refer to the meteorites as to have used ingredients whose reactions with nitrogen produced lots of hydrogen cyanide and the dissolving in water came into contact with hydrogen sulfide and exposure with sunlight.Other researchers laid out that a combination of sugars and amino acids are the building factors of the component life.

It has been noted that life arises severally from non-living materials and could occur elsewhere than in earth such as extraterrestrial life. Various remarkable biochemical and microbiological similarities revealed by life on earth hence a common origin despite all the varying morphological diversity.



Mader, S., and Michael W. (2016). Human Biology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.



Why change is usually resisted?

Change may be defined as the manner by which a business or an individual goes through transformation.  There aremany reasons as to why resistance may occur. Resistance may occur when there is no vivid reason as to why a business should undergo the change. If the staff of a business platform does not see the need for change, they will always resist it especially when the current situation of business runs well.Resistance may resultfrom fear of the unknown. The risks that are still are attended to more than those taking a new curve.

Resistance may occur when changechips in competence. For example when it makesa person feel stupid or low about something new or a new skill that has been introduced.

In situations when the people feel that the business cannot cope up with the change. It can also be due to attachment created to the old way of conducting a business.As such, people do not easily do away with emotional connections to older ways of conducting activities in a business.

Importance for beingequipped with the skills of managing change

It is much better to anticipate resistancefrom change than spending time putting out fire and as such it is important to have skills on how change can be managed. Such skills are relevantsince they enable a business strive in today’s competitive environment. The skills are essential if they may critically affect success of a business. The skills may be necessary if it will enable a business respond to changes in ways that create advantages, minimize risk and enhance performance.

It is time businesses are facing faster, complex and independent changes and as such equipping necessary skills ensure the business builds competencies that make its capacity grow to sustain inevitable changes.



Bourne, M., 2012. Change Management In A Week: Managing Change In Seven Simple Steps. Hachette UK.


Italian History by Ben Ghait

Response paper – Italian Fascist and National Socialist.

The article; Italian Fascists and National Socialists under the chapter; The Dynamics of Uneasy Relationship written by Ruth Ben-Ghait demonstrates the relationship between the Italian Fascists and the National Socialists from the year 1933to 1943.According to Ghait the Fascists assumed authority long before the Nazis but the Italian dictatorship still hold. Ghait in her first phase of her book explores the rise of a Second rights regime in Europe as experienced by Italian Intellectuals and cultural policymakers. Ghait also tracks down the shifts in relations between the Italians and Germans and their responses to the rise of National Socialism. The next phase covers the new phase of Italian-German relations as produced by the 1936 Rome Berlin Axis. Lastly Ghait looks into the Italian fears over their future under the Nazi- led new Europeanorder worsened by the World War twodefeats. Ghait’s article majors on the history of Fascist culture in politics and Mussolini’s dictatorship and how intellectuals used fascism and how fascism used intellectuals.

As stated by Ghait in her book, Italians had German allies during the Mussolini’s final years and this relationship impacted the Italian culture in that some Italian intellectuals started praising their Nordic neighbors who were willing to emulate the German culture of new forms of organization and aesthetics. But Ghait demonstrates how most of the Italian intellectuals used fascism and how they used fascism to warn their peers on the impact of “anarchistic impulses” (pg.258) which had consumed the German politics and the consequences of “die Sachlichkeit uber alles” (pg.258) in the German Weimer Republic which advocated for impersonality.While the Italians as examined by Ghait advocated for individual respect and the realm of feelings and the later was against this.

Fascisms was embraced by older Italians as a form of modernization that would bring solutions to the problems of the national past and the European crisis while the young intellectuals viewed it as a revolutionary break. Ghait demonstrates the Mussolini’s dictatorship and realized that the Italians believed that Mussolini’s fascism was the only solution to the many political, economic, social and spiritual crises. To the intellectuals fascism was a corporative system that would not only be an alternative to bankrupt capitalism but also stem degenerative tendencies through its natalist policies and disciplinary imperatives. She further shows how twenty years of fascism changed the foundation of the Italian culture after the regime failed to perfect the Italian fascism.

In conclusion Ghait’s article is on fascism in Italy and how intellectuals embraced fascism even in modernity and the relation of Fascists and National Socialists.



Arrow, K.: Social Choice and Individual Values. Wiley, New York (1951)

Homelessness in America

Title: Homelessness in America

Thesis: Homelessness has seen a rise in the last decade. Millions of people including families, mentally ill people, babies, veterans andelderly live without water, food or a roof over their heads. This problem needs to be addressed soon.

  1. Introduction

Homeless is a big problem that has to be dealt with soon. It is a ticking bomb waiting to explode, if the issue is not tackled soon, it might pose a lot of problems in the near future.

  1. Causes for homelessness

There are several causes of homelessness. The causes include poverty, Mental illnesses, substance abuse and breakdown in formal relationships. These are among the major reasons as to why people end up in the streets.

  • Total population affected by homelessness

The homeless people are mostly male. The African American groups are more on the streets than the white communities. Women under thirty are also affected by the homelessness.

  1. Consequences of homelessness

Homelessness can cause many problems to the individuals and the society at large including increase in crime rate.



  1. Solutions for homelessness

If the problem of homelessness is to be solved then, solutions must be found soon. The people responsible in government should take initiative and come up with ways in which this problem can be solved before it blows off.

  1. Conclusion

Homelessness has been there and it needs to be solved. The paper has discussed the causes of homelessness and given some of the solutions that can be undertaken to solve the issue.


Topic: Universal Law of Motion and Gravity

Newton in his law of universal gravitation stated that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe and the gravitational force between the two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. He further explained that objects that are spherical in nature such as planets and stars act as if all their mass is concentrated at the center and with that in mind then the distance between two objects that are spherical should be the distance between the centers of both objects.

This is general law in physics that is derived from empirical observations by what Isaac Newton called induction. It was part of classical mechanics and it was formulated by Newton in his work “The Principia” that was first published on 5th July 1687. Understanding the law in modern language, the law states that every point mass attracts every other single point mass by a force pointing along the line of intersection points. The attracting force is proportional to the product of the two masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

Newton also pointed out that the force of gravity is always attractive and it works instantaneously at a distance and it has an infinite range. The force of gravity affects anything that has mass and it is not affected by the object’s chemical composition or charge. Galileo described that this force can account for the downward force caused by the pull of the earth. On the other hand Kepler also pointed out that the gravitational force can account for the force that causes the planets to orbit around the sun.

In his law, Newton also shows and explains that objects with different masses fall at the same rate when dropped. He uses his second law of motion to support his opinion. He bases his opinion on the fact that an object’s acceleration due to the force of gravity only depends on the mass of the object that is pulling it. This simply means that objects will fall at the same rate despite their masses for the example a feather and a hammer will fall at the same rate if they are dropped in the same place.

Einstein’s theory of general relativity has superseded Newton’s law but Newton’s law continues to be used as an excellent approximation of the effects of gravity in most applications. The concept of relativity is only required when there is need for extreme precision or when dealing with gravitational fields that are very strong such as those found near massive dense objects or those that are at close distances.

Newton’s Law on the other hand also resembles Coulomb’s law of electrical forces which is used to calculate the magnitude of the electrical force that arises between two charged bodies. Both are inverse square laws where the force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the bodies. Coulomb’s law uses the product of two charges in place of the product of masses and it uses the electrostatic constant in place of gravitational constant.



Law of Universal Gravitation. (2000). Retrieved April 27, 2016, from…/newtongrav.html

Newton’s Law of Gravitation. (2005). Retrieved April 27, 2016, from

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. (1995). Retrieved April 27, 2016, from


Creative Writing

The project I participated in was of getting team to volunteer in cleaning and painting local elementary school. These schools are usually ignored by most people because they are local hence see no need of maintaining them. Most of the team members had passed through the local elementary school hence they understand how it feels like to learn in unfriendly environment in the modern society. The team therefore set to establish the project by recruiting volunteers through a public campaign to join the team. First the project was set to generally clean the elementary school and secondly to pain the school.

Cleaning the school was the core business of the project. So the team set out to do a thorough cleaning in the school. All the classrooms were cleaned same as the school compound. Since the team had so many participants who turned up the cleaning process was much faster and perfect, this was so because the project was aimed at creating a lasting impact in the society regarding the way it should uphold the local elementary school.

The second agenda of the project was to paint the school. It was done by first painting all the classrooms. Since the team was organised every group performed its part of the deal. The group that was assigned to paint the gate did a tremendous job just like the ones who were assigned to paint the classrooms. The new look was now appealing and more friendly for elementary learners.

The main agenda of the project of cleaning and painting had been completed in time and the outcome left an impact on the society. Since communication was effective, a large group had turned up for the project hence geared the implementation of the project. People should embrace the local elementary schools.

Question 2

Social media such as Facebook and twitter plays a crucial role in stimulating elements of national power (DIME) through the messages it sends to the public. Social media is a platform that attracts people through the information it sends out whether controversial or not. It shapes the government of a country as it spreads information on the ongoing country’s events to every corner of the world, motivating people to debate on the issue. When people converse online they are free to say anything even hateful speech. Such cases stimulate protests as they disagree (O’Donnell, C. (2011).).

When social media posts political debates of a country for everyone to see, people who access this start debating online with personal interests. Such debates tend to trigger demonstrations in the country at stake between those for and againstcountry’sgovernment. They do this by organising and communicating protests online. For example, Arab spring was stimulated by the social media as it mobilized and empowered citizens thus shaping and influencing change in the phase of political uprising. The impact of social media in Arab was so adverse such that the government resorted to engaging citizens in government proceedings by blocking the websites. Same case was experienced in Egypt with the creation of Facebook page; “We Are All Khaled” (O’Donnell, C. (2011).).

Social media is therefore an instrument used by rebels to communicate actualise their rebellion hence stimulating social and political uprising. Social media through the element of information influences elements of a country’s social power as it coordinates the other elements.



O’Donnell, C. (2011). New study quantifies use of social media in Arab Spring. University of Washington.


Web Experience Exegesis

A web presence should incorporate all aspects of a person’s identity whether it is a business or personal related web presence. When creating a web presence, it is important that one choses the best web presence that will help one connect with the rest of the world on the web. How one appears on the web shapes how people see and relate to that person. It is important that a web page presents a strong online presence that will help the people who visiting the page relate to the content posted on the particular page. Consistency when it comes to internet footprints is an important factor when it comes to maintaining a strong online presence. This short essay will analyze my web presence and how it has contextualized the theories that I have read in this unit.

The layout of my web presence is basic and very easy to maneuver. My web presence was created to share my ideas on photography and also share some of works that I have pride in. The theme on the website is very basic. The homepage of my we page gives links to all my social media accounts that be easily accessed by clicking on the link. The homepage also provides a link to a page that gives my personal information and thus making my audience aware of what I do and what my website is all about. My homepage also includes some of the beautiful photographs that I have taken over time. Any first time visitor to the web page will get an idea of what it is about and also experience some of my works and therefore be tempted to go deeper into the webpage. This means that I have already sold my idea of the webpage and the online presence has been successfully created.

The contributing nodes of my web presence mostly consist the social networks. the social networks involved are twitter, Facebook and Instagram. My choice of the contributing nodes was mostly influenced by the theme of my web page. The main aim for my webpage was to share with the world my passion of photography. Photography involves viewing and interpretation of the art by different people. Creating a direct link between my work and the people is an important aspect of what I do. The contributing nodes will therefore connect the people from my social world to my website where they will have access to my works which is the main aim of the webpage. In order to share my content, it is important that I connect the website with sites that are visited constantly and have a huge flowing especially for the youth.

With the creation of the web presence there is a possibility that internet footprints will emerge. This is because most of the content on the website involves something that I have passion over. This means that whatever I post on the web page is what I love. What I choose to post on the page will involve what I love to do. The photographs on my web presence is a part of me, something that I do out of passion and love and thus it presents a part of me. Linking my central node to my contributing nodes will also create an internet footprint because I will be sharing my personal feed with the visitors of my webpage. The possibility of a digital shadow arising from the web presence are there. From the content that will be posted on the web presence then people will form ideas about who I am. As earlier stated photographs are there to be interpreted and people interpret things differently. People can therefore link what is posted on my page to whom they think I am and thus creating a digital shadow of whom I am. When people view the theme and the content of the web presence, they will come up with ideas about who the person behind the website looks like and what the person likes to do. This digital shadow is almost inevitable especially with the social media that is connected to the web presence. Sandry (2016) notes people on social media have profiles that are uniquely identifiable consisting of information that is given by the user or other users. This information can be easily traversed by other people.

On my web presence I have created links to my social media. This will help people who share the same ideas as me connect with me. Different ideas have been posted to my different social media pages that serves as a connection of what is presented on my webpage. Easier connection with people who have similar ideas is important because it will help in the sharing of ideas between all the parties involved. Harnessing of these social media rivers is therefore important and my web presence has taken this into consideration and connected to some of the mostly used social media including Facebook, Twitter and Instagram. I had the assumption that most people today are accustomed to this social media and creating links on the website will make it easier for them to find me and thus get me connected to people with whom we share these ideas. People will also come up with an idea of whom I am from the content that is posted on all the social medias that are connected to the web presence. It is therefore important that all the social media have consistency in them. All the contents that are posted on the various social media should match what is posted on the web presence to avoid misinterpretation of different information about the owner of the webpage. People on social media have the capability of consuming, producing and interacting with user generated information given by the content on a particular site connection., (Sandry, 2016).

Creating a strong web presence is important especially when the aim is to connect with the rest of the world. It is important that the theme used be appealing and responsive to the people who will visit the web. People are looking to the internet to get what they are looking for and it is therefore important that they are not disappointed when they visit any web presence. Internet prints are important because people will be at the liberty to know exactly who I represent. It is also good that people will create digital shadows of whom I am. It is therefore important that the information presented represents who I am in all the contributing nodes that are used in a web presence. People in different sites are connected together in a way that makes digital shadow impossible to avoid, (Sandry, 2016).


Sandry E. (March, 2016) “What is the Internet” Web Communication

Sandry E. (April, 2016) “Social Networks” Web Communication

Sandry E. (April, 2016) “Blogs” Web Communication

Sandry E. (May, 2016) “Internet Footprints” Web Communication

Sandry E. (June, 2016) “The Future of Internet Communications” Web Communication