GVT1 Human Physiology Task 1

Running when a starting pistol signals the beginning of a race is a result of organization and coordination of various parts of human body. The performance of the movement results from the combination of the nervous system, the skeletal system and the muscular system. The systems function interdependently to make sure the person responds immediately the pistol shoots (Bradley, 2006). The structures of the afferent division of the peripheral nervous system involved in this movement are the following: the auditory nerves, the skeletal muscles, the dendrites and the afferent neurons. Then there is (diagram 1) the ear, where the outer ear (17) collects the sound send it to the ear drum (16)  transmitted to the inner ear parts, semicircular canals (5) and cochlea (6) and the eyes which are part of the other sense organs found on the skin and that aid the movement. The peripheral nervous system is made up of nerves and ganglia that are located outside the brain and the spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system connects the central nervous system with the effector organs, for example the limb muscles. The central nervous system assists the activity through the following two structures; these are the spinal cord and the brain. Cerebellum is the main part of the brain that is involved in running. The following are some of the parts of the brain that participate; the optic nerve, the olfactory nerve, the trigeminal nerve, the vagus nerve among others. The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system has the following seven structures that are used when running; these are the nerve fibers, the glands, the cardiac muscles, the smooth muscles, the skeletal muscles, the ganglia, the cranial, the motor neuron and the sensory receptors.

Bones are a stronghold to the running process. The following bones are part of the skeletal system and are involved I the form of movement under study. These bones are the skull, the carpals, the femur, the collarbone, the humerus, the tibia and fibula, the tarsal’s, the metatarsals, the phalanges, the patella, the ribs, the sternum and the pelvis among others. Bones are held together through joints. At least five joints in the skeletal system that enable running when a starting pistol shoots are the following. Firstly, there is the pivot that is found between the ulna and the radius (Clark, 2002). Secondly, the hinge that is a joint found between the humerus and the ulna. Thirdly, the ball and socket are joints found in the hips. Fourthly, there are the glinding joints, these are found between the carpals. Fifthly, the ellipsoid joint, it is located at the knee.  Muscles are found on the top of bones. Thirteen muscles from the muscular system that are involved in running when a starting pistol is fired can be labeled as the following: the quadriceps, the bicep, the tricep, the abdominal, the masseter, the pectoralis, the soleus, the gluteus maximus, the hamstring, the latissimus dorsi, the deltoid the abductor and the trapezius.The nervous system is responsible of coordinating all the activities of the body. In this case shooting a pistol signifies that the individual should start running. The sound of the pistol is gathered by the ears which form part of the peripheral nervous system transmitted by the nerves to the organs, cells and tissues that facilitate running. The message with the help of sensory receptor is transmitted to the central nervous system and it is interpreted. Consequently the message is carried to the muscles cells and glands. The sensory neuron contacts the skeletal system through the connecting neuron (Brodal, 2010). The connecting neuron hence, contacts the motor neuron; the motor neuron at this level sends impulse to the muscles. The muscles, for example, the gastrocnemius and abductor muscles pull legs away from the body lifting the femur with the help of joints. The joints allow free movement of the bones in the body. In this case the hinge joints allow the movement of the knee, the ankle and the fingers that are very important part of movement (Oleksy). The bones are important part, beside other functions they form a service on which muscles lay. The bones hold together the body giving it a structure and in relation to this case allowing movement.   Then the body structure is lifted as the individual throws the first leg forward and the second consecutively.