Governance in the Royal Oman Police ROP: Transparency and accountability using compliance and risk management


Transparency and accountability can be improved through compliance and risk management. Compliance and risk taking are very important in the generation of an up to the task police force. Governance serves to improve the bonds of cohesion among the disciplines of an organisation, in this case, the ROP. Transparency and accountability are two aspects of an organisation that determine its real worth (Steinberg 2011, p. 53). They determine the trust and respect that the general public will accord, how much confidence that the masses have in the organisation. It can be said to be defined as how competent the organisation is in handling matters under their jurisdiction (O’Hagan 2007, p. 24). To cultivate a culture of competence in service delivery it is necessary to take a step back and take a glance at the opportunities that we have to becoming a better force. Through this study, we will be able analyse and review the current working conditions and find ways to improve the working environment through compliance and risk management.


Table of Contents

Abstract 2

Research topic. 4

Introduction. 4

Statement of the problem.. 4

Background and history. 4

Justification of the problem.. 5

Literature review.. 5

Methodology. 7

Research design. 7

Study population. 7

Data types. 7

Data collection. 7

Reliability. 8

Validity. 8

Data analysis. 8

Ethical considerations. 8

References. 9

Governance in the Royal Oman Police ROP: Transparency and accountability using compliance and risk management


Evolution of the rules of governance and maintenance of quality standards has made compliance the core of running organisations (Renz & Herman 2010, p. 31). As days go by human kind is becoming more and more exposed to risks in running their daily activities. The working environment on the other hand demands compliance amidst all the risks involved (Ansell & Wharton 1992, p. 59). To comply with what police officers are expected of, they must surpass the risks involved. Although compliance and risk are two different entities in an organisation (Gray 2008, p. 98), there is an identifiable link between the two. The relationship between the two cannot be under rated since they come hand in hand (Ishikawa & Tsujimoto 2009, p. 197). It is therefore necessary to study how risk management and compliance, which are core principals, can be used to improve the working environment for the good. To achieve the objectives of the research, the departments in ROP will be categorised as follows:

  1. Departments that deal directly with the citizens
  2. Departments that don’t interact with the citizens
  3. Departments that deal with the citizens indirectly

Objective of the study

The purpose of this research is to structure and legally review all the departments in the Roman Oman Police (ORP), analyse recent working process and then study how to improve the working environment using compliance and risk management.

 Research questions

The research will be guided by the following questions:

  1. What are the current working processes?
  2. What are the obligations of the ROP?
  3. How is compliance with the obligations measured?
  4. What are the risks involved in compliance with the obligations?
  5. How can these risks be managed to obtain maximum compliance?

Literature review

A risk can be defined as the possibility of losing something of value such as physical health, social status or even wealth as a result of a given action or activity either foreseen or unforeseen (American Society Of Insurance Management & Risk And Insurance Management Society 1969, p. 13). In other words, it is the interaction with the uncertainties. Risk management on the other hand can be said to be the identification and assessment of risks that is followed by application to minimize or control the probability of such unfortunate events happening (Joint Technical Committee OB-007, Risk Management 2004, p. 123). Compliance means conforming to a given rule, may it be a policy, law or standard (Kohn 1996, np). Compliance is defined in Australian Standard Compliance programs, AS3806-2006, as “Adhering to the requirements of laws, industry and organizational standards and codes, principles of good governance and accepted community and ethical standards.”(Standards Association Of Australia 1998, p. 143).

Compliance works in the principle of ensuring that an organization works in accordance to predetermined rules. They are what guide every day operations in the organization. However to conform to the set guardrails risks have to be undertaken (Sparrow 1994, p. 116). We often find ourselves torn between what is expected of us and what we ought to do to achieve the same. Is what we are going to achieve worth the effort and risks involved?

It is very normal that there are certain dangers that one is involved in at their work station. In the line of duty, officers are exposed to a lot of dangers; some of the danger is physical where they work under every possibility of being attacked. Another danger that is imminent in the service is psychological which is related to stress of being associated with negative events of other people’s lives (Ainsworth 2002, p. 32).  The fact that police officers are under scrutiny and always looked upon to act is itself a stressor to the officers (Toch, Bailey, & Floss 2002, p. 17). The dangerousness of the police duty is however over ruled by a majority. The fact that in some other jobs and occupations such as fishing, mining and piloting workers are more exposed to the risk of death than police officers are. However the risks involved in the cases are different in that a police officer is most likely going to be killed intentionally or in situations where matters get out of grip. A mine worker is most likely going to physically inflicted as an act of industrial accidents (Ridley 1994, p. 54). A senior police officer is most likely to identify an organizational risk, though it is also possible for any member of the institution to identify the same. Risks involved in the fulfillment of the duty need to be identified and brought aboard.


For the achievement of the objective of the research, a number of methods will be applied to derive the expected outcome and sustain relevance and credibility of the research. Most of the information required for the research is theoretical; implying that a more statute research method will be applied. Case law will be used to study a wide field of laws significant in the research (Wonder 2007, p. 89). Explorative research will be applied to gather information required for the research as well as explore works by other authors relevant to the topic (Bailey 2007, p. 122). However, to bring life into the research, the study of archives is not enough. For some aspects to be understood, firsthand information is needed which can be obtained from members of the police force and their senior officials. Information will be obtained by the use of interviews from a selected sample comprising of the officers and government officials.

Data collection

As stated above, interviews will be conducted to obtain current information regarding the current working processes. For the purpose of the interview a questionnaire will be prepared considering the purpose of the study. The structure of the questionnaire must enable it to collect qualitative information as well as quantitative data (Brannen 1992, p. 73). The participants will be mostly gathered from officials of government officials in charge of police service, quality assurance and top police command.

It is however important to consider some limitations and short comings of the selected methodology. Interviews and questionnaires may not always give the expected information; this is primarily because the researcher has no control over the information that the participant is willing to give (Miller & Whicker 1999, p. 121). The information may be subjected to falsehood or even exaggeration and therefore untrue inferences will be made and therefore reliability of the research being questioned. The process of collection of data by the use of questionnaire method is time consuming and requires a lot of effort on the part of the researcher. Expenses to cater for transport during the process of data collection will also be incurred (Razavi 2001, p. 13).

Ethical issues to consider

  1. Clearance to conduct the study will be sought from the relevant authorities and participation will be voluntary.
  2. Identity of the participants may be concealed to protect them from any form of victimisation.
  3. The results, what so ever will, are treated as they are to avoid any bias and predetermined assumptions.

Expected outcome

Data and information obtained from the interviews and that from study of case law will be used in an additive way. Information gathered from the questionnaire will provide information about the current working processes in the police service. Emerging risks will also be discovered from the same. The current risk management and compliance controls in the ROP realized. On the other hand, information on the measures of transparency and accountability will be studied from explorative research and case and study on case laws. From the observations made, the researcher will find the link between the measures of transparency and accountability and the current working process (Karanja 2008, p. 31). The researcher will then use these results to find out how risk management and compliance can be used to develop a better value of transparency and accountability and also improve current working environment in ROP.


Ainsworth, P. B 2002, Psychology and policing, Cullompton, Devon, UK, Willan Pub.

American Society of Insurance Management, & Risk And Insurance Management Society 1969, Risk management, New York, N.Y., American Society of Insurance Management.

Ansell, J., & Wharton, F 1992, Risk: analysis, assessment and management, Chichester, John Wiley.

Bailey, C. A 2007, A guide to qualitative field research, Thousand Oaks, Calif, Pine Forge Press.

Brannen, J 1992,  Mixing methods: qualitative and quantitative research, Aldershot, Avebury.

Gray, G. C 2008, Local safety cultures of risk and regulation: Workplace safety, individual responsibility, and near miss accidents, Thesis (Ph. D.)–University of Toronto, 2008.

Ishikawa, A., & Tsujimoto, A 2009, Risk and crisis management 101 cases, Singapore, World Scientific.

Joint Technical Committee Ob-007, Risk Management 2004, Risk management, Sydney, NSW, Standards Australia International, Ltd.

Karanja, S. K 2008, Transparency and proportionality in the Schengen information system and border control co-operation, Leiden, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.

Kohn, A 1996, Beyond discipline: from compliance to community, Alexandria, Va, ASCD.

Miller, g., & Whicker, M. L 1999, Handbook of research methods in public administration, New York, M. Dekker.

O’hagan, K 2007, Competence in social work practice a practical guide for students and professionals, London, Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Razavi, T 2001, Self-report measures: an overview of concerns and limitations of questionnaire use in occupational stress research, Southampton, School of Management, University of Southampton.

Renz, D. O., & Herman, R. D 2010, The Jossey-Bass handbook of nonprofit leadership and management, San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.

Ridley, J. R 1994, Safety at work, Oxford [England], Butterworth-Heinemann.

Sparrow, M. K 1994, Imposing duties: government’s changing approach to compliance, Westport, Conn, Praeger.

Standards Association of Australia, 1998, Compliance programs, Homebush, N.S.W., Standards Australia.

Steinberg, R 2011, Governance, risk management, and compliance it can’t happen to us– avoiding corporate disaster while driving success, Hoboken, N.J., Wiley.

Toch, H., Bailey, F. Y., & Floss, M 2002, Stress in policing, Washington, D.C., American Psychological Association.

Wonder, A. Y 2007, Bloodstain pattern evidence objective approaches and case applications, Amsterdam, Elsevier/Academic Press.