Communism has been experienced in some parts of the Europe and mostly in several parts of Asia. In the paper we are going to explore the effects of communism on the people of republic of Soviet and the people of republic of china. These two countries are very essential when it comes to historical analysis of communism. Between the two countries Russia has the longest history of communism because it was started in the year 1917 when the Bolsheviks seized power. Russia is believed to be the mother of communism. Communism was introduced in the republic of china in the year 1949 by Mao Deng. Since its introduction, the citizens of these great nations have endured a lot of suffering making communism an impossible policy to implement.
Upon seizure of power in the year 1917, the Bolsheviks made several attempts to sell the communist policies across the world. They offered interested leaders political guidance, weaponry and even financial support. This is how they were able to introduce communism in china through Mae Deng in the year 1949. Communism has failed in several countries including the soviet republic because the people found it unbearable. However, communism still exists in a few countries, China included. In china the communists have clung to power by being adamant to call for capitalism by the citizens.
Communism was found on Marxism which champions for abolition of private properties for the sake of the community to reduce conflicts that arise due to economic inequalities. This principle in itself is misleading and is a cause for adverse destructions in the long run. The policy aimed at thwarting the human nature of acquisitiveness.
Communism called for community land ownership as opposed to private ownership. This idea could not stay for long because it was trying to redefine the human nature of acquisitiveness. The Russian and the Chinese governments vested land, livestock and any other capital ownership to families and tribes. In his way they discouraged commerce and consequently eliminated capitalism.
In the year 1949, when the communist party ascended to power in china under the leadership of Mao, the industry at the coast was owned by foreigners. This had an adverse implication on the Chinese economy because all the profits were repatriated out of the country. During this period a lot of Chinese were exposed to abject poverty, they could access healthcare facilities neither could they obtain education. All these were reserved to the wealthy class of people, majority of them being foreigners. The living standard of most of the Chinese was very poor because the country was experiencing 1000 percent inflation rate at that time.
When the communists took power, they immediately chased the foreigners out of their country and transferred the ownership of the coastal industry into the communities. They then proceeded to improve the healthcare and educational facilities across the country. Positive impacts were realized out of this because the population increased from 450 million in the year 1949 to 583 million by the year 1953. The economy of the republic of china experienced a significant growth but it was still below its main competitors like Britain and United States of America.
Communism could not last longer in Russia because of the false belief that it was rooted on. It was based on the idea that global allegiances could epic borders created by a given nation. Russia through its leadership was opting to be part of this illusive history. The Russians felt that time was due for them to eradicate the monopoly of foreign trade that was exercised by the workers’ state. Despite the fact that the communist government wanted to protect its local industry from competition offered by foreign importers, it was not good for the full growth of the Russian economy.
Communism in Russia had caused the country to experience a state of disorganization and imbalance. The industry whose ownership was transferred to the workers’ state was on the verge of collapse while the agricultural sector had collapsed. The collapse of agricultural sector was caused by the transfer of land ownership to communities. This caused lack of control and then neglect. People lacked the enthusiasm to improve their living standards because they were all equal.
The main policy of communism was to nationalize all the productive assets that existed within their territories and then transferring ownership to the people did not have any knowledge or expertise to manage those assets effectively. This act in itself is disastrous and is deemed to fail either in the short or long run. The people that ownership of these assets is vented on do not have even motivation to make production out of them.
When communism was introduced to the people of Russia and the people of the republic of china, they stopped to perceive themselves as self-reliant individuals but as state agents whose aspect of well-being solely depend on the government initiatives. This is a dangerous state for the citizens of a given country because it lowers productivity. For instance, when the communist government of Mao Deng came to power in 1949, it laid a five year plan that was aimed to oversee double production of steel, coal, machine tools and cement. The production, however improved but the production of 5.3 million tones was far much below 100 million tones that was produced by the capitalistic United States of America.
Despite all the efforts that were put in place by the Chinese citizens, their production level continue to lag behind the capitalist nations they were competing against. This called for revisionism and it started upon the death of Mao in the year 1976. The Chinese people felt that communism provided a revolutionary platform and they were not willing to wait for more generations to incorporate capitalism. They realized that the growth of their economy depended solely on the devices they had invented. This the people of china were lagging behind in the economic development despite the fact that they had the most powerful and sustainable workforce in the world. They dreamt of becoming economic power house and this would not come true if capitalism was not adopted.
It is quite interesting to note that despite this urge china has never achieved its optimum capitalism to date. The subsequent governments have encouraged foreign investors into their country but their operations have been limited to specific economic zones. Currently, over 50 percent of the industries in the republic of china are owned by the state and run through communism principles. It is therefore correct to term china as a communist republic.
The government’s decision to exercise authority over 50 percent of its industries has been of tremendous relief during global recession. The state is able to exercise direct intervention on the majority of its assets making it very easy to resolve any economic downfall. China is at the verge of outdoing its main global competitors in terms of economic strength and to some extent that this is attributed to both capitalism and communism. China is yet to completely abolish communism and the phenomenon is not to happen in the near future.
Countries like Russia which have abolished communism completely and followed suit in practicing capitalism like other European superpowers know exactly the negative effects of communism. When communism was still practiced in USSR free market as abolished, an idea that adversely affected the lives of Russians. The Russians did not experience any motivation apart from satisfaction of the basic needs. The policies of communism aimed at rewarding both slackers and workers equally despite the inequality in the effort applied towards production.
Russians found it impossible to pretend that they were contented with the idea of abolishing the free market. The capitalists that were present in Russia during this period were forced to mount offensive ideology against the ruling communist government. They argued that the production were carried out to provide private profit and not for the whole community members. There were community members who did not bother to work yet they wanted their needs satisfied. The Kronstadt rebellion carried out by a given gang was a reaction towards the impractical ideologies of communism. The Bolsheviks who championed for communism resorted to force, coercion and deception to realize their objects amidst dissatisfaction.
The people of Russia could not embrace communism anymore because it devastated both their liberty and economy. They felt that liberty as individuals were violated when the state made encroachments to their private assets such as land, livestock and industries. Liberty demands that a state shall not exercise its authority over the properties owned by its citizens at any cost. When these properties were seized from the private owners and transferred to the communities and tribes, the private owners were discontented and vowed to regain their property back. It is a natural law to be denied ownership of something you have spent a fortune and life time building.
Communism in Russia was aimed at providing solution to social inequalities. It was also to aid in elimination of social classes that were consequently created by social inequalities. It is not a surprise that it did not solve the problem in the long run because social class is naturally built by the difference in peoples’ personalities. Even siblings of the same household can never be equal social because they have different natural capabilities. Despite the government attempt to treat every citizen of the republic of Russia equally by offering community ownership of capitalistic assets, social classes continued to emerge because some opted to be workers and others opted to be slackers. The workers could not bear it any longer toiling very hard in the industries and farms while the slackers enjoyed their rewards in the same proportion. This is the main root of revolution and rebellion against communism in Russia. During all those periods that Russia was exercising communism, its citizens were robbed of their self-reliance and compelled to follow orders given by the government. The people of Russia felt that sense of responsibility and that of work ethic got killed when the communists took power.
It is not a crime to term the perpetrators of communism in both Russia and the republic of china such as Stalin, Lenin and Mao as monsters because the psychological suffering they inflicted in their citizens was untold. They only cared about their party and their communism at the expense of the liberty of their citizens. They were tyrants who aimed at satisfying their political agendas and ignored the needs of their citizens.
The communists government imprisoned, exiled, silenced and even tortured individuals who did conformed to their ideological conformity which was their main agenda. The people who were became victims of such atrocities were in most cases the enterprising, talented, truthful, insightful and civic-minded citizens. The aftermath of this madness was devastated economy.
Communists were willing to use force against the subjects that opposed their ideology and in turn lost the confidence and trust in their citizens. Collapse of the communism in Russia marks a very significant historical event since the occurrence of the Second World War. The people of the republic of china and those of Russia felt that they deserved to be treated with respect and their dignity was to be upheld at all cost. It is at this particular time that the Russians called for abolishment of the communism in their nation and even the whole world because they felt it as against humanity.
The people of Chinese still hold to communism despite its setbacks. However, they have incorporated capitalism to improve their humanity and boost their self-reliance. China has grown stronger since the introduction of capitalism but its economic stability rests on its communism practice which ensures that the state maintains ownership more than a half the state properties and industries.
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