Chinese Table Manners


Every culture across the world has a tradition when it comes to dining. Therefore, table manners define etiquette rules that accompany eating (Visser 3). Chinese just like any other people across the world embraces certain rules as well as codes that govern their eating habits, hence referred to as the Chinese table manners (Yang and Linda Hui 67). Some of these Chinese table manners seems interesting as well as unique in their application and must be embraced by all the Chinese on their dining tables at any given time and wherever they are across the world. Therefore, Chinese table manners according to me are very unique and this calls for this study to elaborately look into the Chinese table manners.

A round table is always used frequently unlike the square or triangular tables when dining since many people can be seated around facing one another (Zhao and Rongguang 3). Often, the guest gets seated to the right of the hosts and the other guest seat to the left of the guest of the owner. Also, the Chinese table manners would consider it discourteous for the host to sit gust on table with dishes already served (Visser 3).

Once all are set, dining only begins once the host invites the gust to enjoy the meal together. In addition, the older people on the dining table should be allowed to serve and begin eating as the young in their midst follow the sequence (Yang and Linda Hui 67). On the dining table, everything should begin from the guest of honor, meaning that eve a serving of food to a toast should all begin from the guest of honor. Therefore, the guest of honor s the center of focus on any normal Chinese dining occasion and must be treated with respect (Zhao and Rongguang 3).

The speech

Ladies and gentlemen, allow me great you at this opportune time as we purpose to look into the Chinese table manners that has proved to be very unique across the world (Visser 4). To begin with ladies and gentlemen, after everyone is seated to enjoy a Chinese delicacy, apart from soup, all the Chinese dishes should be eaten with chopstick. I know many of us are wondering how possible to the Chinese eat using chopstick (Yang and Linda Hui 67). Yes, it is unique and that is why its attached to chinses and no other groups across the world.

Concerning the chopsticks ladies and gentlemen, twiddling, stirring up tea, licking the chopstick is not allowed. Besides, when eating rice, never stick the chopstick right at the center because that is a procedure of making sacrifices and would be considered inauspicious. Ladies and gentlemen who aspire to eat among the chinses, whenever you find your dish, it will be of manners to eat gently as gobbling the food quickly like a horse is considered a bad habit. Besides, consult others whenever you feel that you need more which is still left at table before you finish it all (Visser 4).

Ladies and element, remember to eat with mouth closed since opening the mouth open while chewing your food will be a sign of lack of antique (Yang and Linda Hui 68). Also remember to put just enough food into the mouth for chewing at a time hence avoiding gluttonous impression to other diners. Besides, as you eat, you should control pressure on the chopstick to separate the food apart as this required mush pressure. Also, one should not use the chopstick form the mouth to pick up food from the central plate (Yang and Linda Hui 68).


Finally, ladies and gentlemen, with all the eating habits preserved at table, the Chinese just like any other table manners requires you to say “thank you” to the host or to the cook.  Being grateful is a sign of appreciation. I therefore wish my fellow audience who look forward to have a taste of Chinese dishes while observing the table manners, great moments in their adventure.

Works Cited

How Bebop Developed, Became The Major Modern Movement in Jazz

History records that jazz music development dates back to the late 19th and early 20th century as African Americans communities ventured into entertainment industry. The emergence is equally linked with the common bond that was shared by both the African America and European America (Belgrad, 2014). As a type of music, Jazz, developed under distinctive styles and one such styles is Bebop. As recorded, Bebop emerged as a style of playing Jazz music due to the difficulties that the jazz musicians faced during the World War ii. The Birth of Bebop dates back to the early to mid-1940s with distinctive traits that made it more popular that other styles like the swing and big band (Ramsey, 2013).

The popularity of Bebop music was rising at a time the big bands were declining because the effects of the World War II. As a point to provide more troops to fight in the war, most of the men in the big bands were drawn hence no one to support the big bands. I addition the rubber and shortages curtailed road trips making them to be impressable as the road trips was the means by which the big band travelled (Ramsey, 2013). The midnight curfews led to the shutting down of clubs as well as the ballrooms at the prime hours of the big band. Tax was also incised to as much as twenty percent in some American cities for the big bands to operate. Besides, racism also played a major role in the decline of the Big Band and tour by the black musicians was hindered to the extent of staying in separate hotels and also ate at different restaurant (Belgrad, 2014).

The following forms Bebop’s distinctive characteristic that made it more popular to the listeners unlike other styles of jazz. One, improvisational which meant that the Bebop melody was only stated once, that is at the beginning and the end. Two, Bebop utilized small-group music whereby a rhythm sections of bass, piano, saxophone, trumpet and drams were used making the Bebop music style to be considered danceable (Belgrad, 2014). Three, speed at which Bebop was developed under was that of break-neck speeds, even in the case of slow ballads, the solos had speed wildly making it more captivating. Forth, the drastically changed roles of the instruments as the drummers has to shift primarily though timekeeping from drum to cymbals as well as the snare hence Bebop’s lighter and effervescent aura. Finally, other traits included brash and harsh, use of complex rhythms as well as rapid series of chords made the Bebop style of Jazz music more popular than the other styles like the Swing style (Ramsey, 2013).

How Bebop fragmented into the styles of cool and hard bop

The cool bop developed as a result of the work of many current horn men who have employed slow vibration of the instruments, light weight, dry and soft tone qualities as well as an exceptional economy in their improvisation (Ramsey, 2013). Much of the cool bop avoided high notes, besides the loud playing of the music and sounded was equally subdued by comparison with the bop. Some of the significant individuals in cool bop were Lester Young and the pianist Count Basie whose music were exceptionally light and relaxed in feelings, uncluttered and thoughtful in conception hence the cool bop of music (Belgrad, 2014).

On the other hand, the hard bop which is sometimes referred to as the “funky” hard bop which is characterized by rocking as well as the rhythmic feeling that is associated with the music. The hard bop has been influenced by gospel and blues forms of music. The hard bop invokes a groove feeling as well to the listeners. The most popular hard bop group was Miles Davis Quinter that mostly performed in the mid-1950

The role of African-American played in innovation in reaction to mainstream tastes

The African-Americans helped develop music genre that that captured the word’s attention as it brought both people of color and the whites together. A figure like Davis Miles plays an important role in sending various massages to the listeners both black and white as a point of reunion as well as fighting racial disparities in the United States. The taste of music developed by the African America also brought fellow African together as a means of entertainment as well as earning a livelihood (Belgrad, 2014).

Compare the careers of miles Davis and john Coltrane in regard to their role in the

Development of cool, hard bop and modal jazz

Miles Davis is an important figure in the 1950s as he ventured into the cool Jazz as well as the hard bop. The majored theme by Miles Davis was that of the harrowing world of heroin addiction. The return of Miles Davis into the Jazz music sparked the shift of jazz to a hard bop. In the 1950s, Miles Davis modeled the jazz music whereby he organized himself to a successful post-bebop small group which had a trumpet player, who had restrained tone dramatically juxtaposed as opposed to the garrulous. Davis also interacted with Gil Evans in the world of music to strengthen their relationship as well as attract more followers of Jazz music (McNulty, 2015).

In the twenty years of operation as a musician in the world of Jazz, Davis Miles brought a rethinking of harmony, rhythm, melody and instrumentation, hut the trumpets laying styles remained the same all through his musical career. As pointed out, the persona in Davis’s music was very influence as he mostly emphasized on cool and romantic musical themes. The persona was also charismatic as well as a symbol of his time in the music industry. Besides, Davis also played along with the big bands of Gillespie and Carter and some people though that the collaboration Davis made with the musicians made Davis a second rated bebopper (McNulty, 2015).

As opposed to Davis Miles, Coltrane fully explored the modal world of jazz music as well as the cultural aspects of the music to higher degree. Further, Coltrane explored also the ethical avant-garde of the 1960s which also describes his short lived jazz opposed to Davis, Coltrane waited until 1955 when he begun to record most of his music albums to which he established himself as the rival of Sonny Rollins. By 1959, Coltrane organized his band and it was the same time Davis feel off after the kind of Blue and thereafter Coltrane filled the leadership roles left by Davis (McNulty, 2015).

Coltrane also worked with Davis but unfortunately due drug dependency was fired twice by Davis. Coltrane later cleared himself and devoted himself to music. Davis and Coltrane recorded kind of Blue as well as other albums with Adderley and Milt Jackson. Finally, Coltrane in the musical arena can be remembered to have explored the relationship that existed between chords and Scales during the periods he composed more complex harmonic sequences such as the “Giant steps”. The album was considered to a reply to the album Kind of Blues (McNulty, 2015).


Hospitality Presentation Speech about Auguste Escoffier

Describe Influences (Carame)

Transformation leaders have the capacity to change the existing organizational culture as well as procedures undertaken to perform the various task. Therefore, Auguste Escoffier as a reputable chef gained insight from Carame and was able to simplify various elaborate recipes and procedures used by Carame. Carame as a pioneer in French Grand Cuisine wrote several cookbooks. The cookbooks were known to display his decorative and intricate centerpieces as well as elaborate recopies. Therefore, it is such recipe used by Carame that Auguste Escoffier as a transformational leader improved to develop the modern French Cuisine (Manning, 2013).

Additionally, transformational leaders like Escoffier often create learning opportunities to be used by the upcoming individuals in the same career line. Hence, Auguste Escoffier stimulated followers to solve problems and in the same way Escoffier was able to distil Carame’s elaborative classification of saucer into Five Mother Sourer that is Bechamel, espingnole, Veloute, Hollandaise, and Tomate. Meaning Escoffier believed that the grandeur of French Cuisine originated from the sources mentioned above (Manning, 2013).

Similarly, Escoffier being a transformational leader in hospitality field also led by motivating upcoming chefs to work towards achieving their goals beyond self-interest. That is why influenced by Carame; Escoffier was also able to write eight landmark books with the famous one being Le Guide Culinaire that is even used in the present times and containing over five thousand recipes. The methods improved on by Escoffier era widely sued toady because of their flexibility in application (Manning, 2013).

Finally, as part of influence by Carame, Escoffier leadership in hospitality arena is founded on Escoffier’s capacity to be distinguished by their ability always to inspire as well as provide individualized consideration, idealized influence, and intellectual stimulation to their upcoming chefs. In support of his leadership style, Escoffier abolished a system in which all food come out at the same time and replaces the system with food delivered in courses (Manning, 2013).


Types of Validities and How They Relate to Other Validities

Question one: Types of Validities and How They Relate to Other Validities

Internal validity

Internal validity is a measure that grants a researcher an elaborate guideline to make sure that the research presented follows the principle of cause as well as effects of the topic of discussion. Also, internal validity looks into whether the various effects examined in the study results from manipulations of the variables that are independent and not from other factors. Therefore, there is a casual relationship that is determined between the dependent and independent variables within the research work as presented by the researcher.

Internal validity relates to face validity because both seeks to prove that, the test carried out during the study measure the exactly what it claims to measure.

External validity

Refers to the degree to which the results of a study can be generalized to other people otherwise known as population validity, other settings also referred to as ecological validity and over time frame otherwise known as historical validity. Therefore, to improve on the external validity researcher ought to set the various experiments in a more natural setting as well as employ random sampling at the time of participants’ selections. External validity relates to concurrent validity as it examines the extent to which a given test will correspond to a given external criterion which is concurrently known.

Construct validity

Describes the various degrees to which the various tests during a study, tends to capture a theoretical trait or construct as well as other overlaps that may occur within other aspects of validity. Also, the construct validity is not concerned with the simple as well as factual questions that regard whether the test measures a particular attribute. Otherwise, it is concerned with the complex issue, which is whether a given test score interpretations are in line with a given homological network that involves the various theoretical as well as observational terms.

Question Two: Strength of Procedures Used by Tremblay

To test the validity of WEIM, Tremblay included in her research an analytical system through a confirmatory study. According to Boudreau, et al. (2001), confirmatory studies seeks to perform a test on a prescribed relationship between the variable. Therefore, a confirmatory procedure of undertaking research enables the researcher to the critic as well as come up with a valid reasoning about the specific variables under investigation hence the confirmatory studies as employed by Tremblay. Through the confirmatory studies, Tremblay was able to confirm how WEIMS are applicable in various work environments.

Tremblay also adopted laboratory experiment procedure to investigate the application of WEIMS in deferent work environments. The laboratory experiments as explained by Boudreau, et al. (2001), enabled the researcher, Tremblay, to randomly select the participants were the Canadian forces. The selection was also voluntary meaning that the soldiers were not compelled to participate in the study hence a high degree of research validity. This random sampling also eliminated errors in a study that could be as a result of being biassed from the participants.

According to Scandura and Williams (2001), Tremblay’s research des not fully represents the validity of the research work. For the Scandura and Williams (2001) work, they had to study all the articles that were published in the Academy of Management journals, meaning their methods acquired a high standard of research validity. Studying a variety of research works that are related to a given topic of study would enable the researcher to presents a research with high validity as compared to a scenario where there is little research done on another article with a similar topic of discussion. Therefore, Tremblay ought to have gone through several research works carried out by other scholars to present a research of high validity.

Question Three: Critique

Tremblay, procedures are well presented in the case of conducting the selection as well as seeking the views of the correspondent. Manipulation of correspondents is known to interfere with the respondent’s ability to present a self-initiated response.

Also, Tremblay has clearly the results of her findings, for instance, work climate which will influence the motivation of worker because an unfavorable work climate would only demotivate employees rather than motivating the workers. Similarly, the degree of organizational commitment also influences the motivation of the employees whereby the employees can derive motivation from the emotional attachment to the organization as well as the continued commitment within the organization.

Besides, Tremblay further presents work self-Determination theory, which explains the nature of motivation about the behavior of the employees. Tremblay research is informative as it explains how the behavior of the human being as employees influence their behaviors about motivation within the work environment. Also, psychology plays important aspects of the motivation of employee as presented by Tremblay. Therefore, the employers have the mandate to understand their employees psychologically hence evaluate them effectively concerning the right method of motivation in the workplace.

Finally, Tremblay does not present an elaborative conclusion of her research work. The conclusion does not fully capture the thesis. The conclusion is presented in a form that would require the readers to ask further more question that ought to be captured in the entire body. Tremblay achieves the validity of WEIMS in various work environments.


Fashion in the 1960s

Media forms a significant part of our lives as various forms of media keeps us informed of the happenings both in the past and present around the globe. Some past occurrence as covered by the media is key to our development. Therefore, media and communication have helped in keeping us aware of historical changes concerning fashion.

Great magazines such as Vogue, an American based fashion magazine founded in 1892, has taken it upon itself to spread the developments taking shape in fashion. Critically, the magazine records that much changes in youth’s fashion occurred in the 1960s, otherwise called the “Youth quake 1960s”. The question would be, what was happening before and after these historical moments, what were the barriers to fashion development?

Elaborately, through the media such as the Vogue magazine, the origins of what people wear today can be traced. On significant growth in fashion as noted through Vogue is the mini-skirt, designed by one, Mary Quant. This historic moment took place in the early 1960s, and as reported by Quant, the youths were tired of being in the long dresses that did not match their youthful stage of development. It was, therefore, important to improve the fashion to the young people in the society.

From the article as well as information by the fashion magazine, I have a feeling that every development in history experienced main obstacles. To the fashion development, politics was a major barrier, as governments dictated what people could wear. At certain points, for development to take place, it is of the essence to confront the authority in a case that the development is for the general good of the society. The 1960s periods for sure brought a revolution in the fashion industry, not only to ladies but also men in general.

Notably, other factors are also to looked into towards the development of fashion. Technological innovations have worked a great deal in bringing a revolution in fashion, as both men’s and women’s wear are designed and made with preciseness. Additionally, gender issues such as the gay was a challenge to the clothe designers. The designers have to design clothes that can be attractive to every gender.

Finally, media and communication cornering fashion will still be a pillar to help the upcoming clothe designers who wish to improve the face of fusion across the globe. It would be another revolution if the designers make use of the past and present information and technology do develop new wears.


Media and communication research

Question one

As an American born citizen, I believed that most of the citizens’ from Saudi Arabia are not much learned. It was a surprise when we were invited for a communication skills talk where the guest speaker was Saudi Arabia national by the names Dr. Mohamed. He was such an eloquent, witty, and a charismatic speaker that not even my American lectures could match him. Meaning this was a scenario of inaccuracy of stereotyping people from different culture (Jensen, 90).

Question two

My greatest listening challenge is listening to more than one conversation at a go, meaning that during lectures, I must sit at the fronts seats to clearly get what the lecturer teaches rather than sitting at the back where students are known to converse at the same time as lectures. To solve this challenge, I have to be next to the source of communication to have a full concentration as well as avoid destructors during listening to communication (Jensen, 95).

Question three

At one time we formed a discussion group with the primary objective to nature our public speaking skills. From the group the leader was Janson, an eloquent speaker whose public speaking skills were commendable. My role was to ensure that every Thursday at noon, all the members gather with everyone to present at least one item to the audience. From the group, confidence, good listening skills as well as oratory skills were gained by the members of the group hence the benefit of the group (Jensen, 10o).

Question four

Through the media, one personality I respect for his public spiking skills is Barack Obama, the current U.S president. As a public speaker, his confidence is very impressive as well as he possesses good oratory skills and often captures the world’s attention at every function. During his inauguration speech, he left everyone who watched him across the world speechless, because in his speech, he was eloquent, passionate and recognized his audience time to time (Jensen, 104).

Question five

One time in the communication class, the lecture did not prepare to avail the projector. Due to the large number of the student, one he was inaudible from the place I sat. Second, he was unable to present pictorial communication channels as he used to do with the projector machine. Meaning that visual aids such as PowerPoint projectors and audio visual aids such as public address are effective in public communication (Jensen, 102).

Question six

One afternoon, after the president speech in the lecture hall, he said he was in a hurry and could not have time to have lunch with the lecture. The vice chancellor persuaded him that he could as well go to the lunch table just to sit at his preserved seat for a second then walk away. This was funny to the president, and he had to fall for the persuasive Vice chancellor’s words and he ended up having lunch with the lecturers (Jensen, 104).

Work Cited

Mentoring and Coaching In Nursing


Every profession has revolution both technological and workmanship, as a move towards bettering and improving the quality of services in such fields. Nursing as a profession has experienced similar revolution as technological changes take place more often (Bridges et al., 2013). The changes have therefore made mentoring and coaching in nursing a must participate in activity to the advantage of skilling and reskilling nurses as part of a medical fraternity (Grossman, 2012). One may consider mentoring to mean the same thing, but they have a thin line dividing them apart to be independent activities not only to the nursing field but also in another profession. This study, therefore, seeks to pursue mentoring and coaching in nursing and its importance to the nursing as a profession. Similarly, this study begins by understanding monitoring and coaching concept in nursing as a means of meeting the goals of the study.

Definition of Terms

Mentoring: define the training activities that is conducted for a longer duration and it is focused on the career development of a person by guiding as well as nurturing him or her depending on the requirement of his or her profession (Bridges et al., 2013). Mentoring is relationship oriented whereby a level environment is provided for the person being mentored feels free to share his or expertise in the field as well as whatever affects their profession (Grossman, 2012). In addition, mentoring is development driven as it improves the individual performance.

Coaching: define an approach given to trainees that equip then with the required skills to enable them to achieve a maximum positive and productive ability (Thompson et al., 2012). Therefore, coaching is task oriented as well as a short-term process that aims at equipping one with relevant skills (McNamara, et al., 2014).

Reasons for Choosing Mentoring and Coaching in Nursing

Mentoring and coaching in nursing is a topic that has generated much interest as a case of incompetence of medical practitioners to deal with emerging issues in health are on the rise (Grossman, 2012). Therefore, there is a need to examine activities that can make the nursing process safe hence the need to embrace mentoring and monitoring activities in the nursing profession.

Similarly, due to a constant technological innovation, the older nurses requires a set of programs such as mentoring as well as coaching as a way of reskilling them on the use of new health apparatus (Bridges et al., 2013). Besides, there are so many current diverting issues such as the emergence of new diseases that may make new as well as older nursed shy away from meeting such challenges (McNamara, et al., 2014). Therefore, this topic becomes relevant for such nurses who are against change leading to their incompetence. Mentoring and coaching will equipment them with enough techniques to counter such change and continue to be productive medical practitioners.

Also, this topic is of interest as it aims to answer the questions as to how nursing as a practice can be made safe for the patients as well as the nurses who attend to the patients within and outside the medical facilities (Bridges et al., 2013). Meaning that incorporating this topic into the training programs of nurses will be a lifesaving to both the nurses and their patients.

The Current Relevance of Mentoring and Coaching in Nursing

Currently, within the nursing profession, evidence-based practices have been emphasized as a move to improve the quality of care given to the patients (Grossman, 2012). Evidently based nursing is gaining momentum currently hence the need to emphasize on its success because its adoption will enable the nurses to acquire relevant information as well as skills to apply in their daily lives as medical practitioners (McNamara, et al., 2014). Therefore, to achieve the goals of evidence-based learning as well as practices, there is more need to employ mentoring and coaching kin nursing practices (Narayanasamy & Penney, 2014). Concerning mentoring, mentoring functions to enable a hospital both public and private to develop its diverse employees thereby removing barriers that pose as a hindrance to their productivity ad success hence more of evidence-based practice in nursing.

On the other hand, coaching concerning evidence-based practices in the nursing profession seeks to develop the nurses in a specific competency by employing various performance management tools as well as involving the immediate head nurses as a way to make the nurses skilled in handling various complex issues in nursing (Bridges et al., 2013).

Besides, the current nursing requirements seek to get into medical facilities nurse that are both skilled and competent in their respective duties (Grossman, 2012). Mentoring and coaching, therefore, equips the nurses with the required information and skills required to counter challenges that are experienced in the nursing profession (McNamara, et al., 2014). Similarly, the medical field as a requirement has currently embarked on mentoring and coaching as a way to develop as well as improve the general performance of the nurses (Narayanasamy & Penney, 2014). With elaborate mentoring and coaching undertaken for nurses, the nurses will acquire the knowledge and skills to that will help them make their patients understand to manage without complication both long term medical conditions as well as develop various realistic plans of care. Therefore, the nurses will manage to empower their patients during the patient-nurse scenario.

Currently, studies show that there is a future expectation of shortage of well trained and competent nurses within the medical facilities (Bridges et al., 2013). Therefore, there is more need to embrace mentoring and coaching within the nursing institution to improve confidence within the nurses (Grossman, 2012). Nursing practices advocates for both confidence and competency, therefore, confidence will majorly be implemented in nurses through an elaborate program that seeks to equip the nurses with relevant information through coaching and mentoring at the same time (McNamara, et al., 2014). With confidence, the nurses will be in a position to contain various challenges that come with nursing practices hence save lives of patients under critical conditions.

Also, the current study shows that coaching and monitoring in nursing affect the retention of new nurses within medical facilities (Bridges et al., 2013). Within the learning nursing institutions, the nurses are in most cases reported to be excited and waiting with zeal to be absorbed in the “real world” to apply their theoretical gained knowledge upon being licensed (Narayanasamy & Penney, 2014). As a new nurse within a clinical setup, one may face be with a feeling of uncertainty as well as rejection from the senior nurses within the medical facilities. Therefore, mentoring and coaching would enable the new nurses to be confident as well as well-equipped with relevant information to face such challenges.

Integration of Mentoring and Coaching in Clinical Practices

Clinical studies show that currently, more patients are increasingly willing to take control of their clinical conditions (Thompson et al., 2012). Therefore, coaching as a practice to the nurses will enable them to employ a focused form of communication with the main objective of implementing patient-centered care (Grossman, 2012). Nursing-patient relationship theoretical teaching does not put the nurses in a better position to manage the patients issues successfully. Therefore, coaching of nurses within the clinical facilities equips them with techniques of effectively fostering a good relationship with the patients with an aim of providing quality care to the patients (McNamara, et al., 2014). Also, coaching of clients and patients is an application that is slowly taking shape in nursing clinical practices and will soon expand because it aims at providing quality care to the patients.

Inter-professional coaching has also been integrated into clinical practices. Nurses are not independent in their clinical practices, but their duties in made complete with the presence of doctors as well as other healthcare professionals (Bridges et al., 2013). Therefore, working together with the caregivers and doctors requires a deep understanding of teamwork strategies hence through coaching and mentoring, the medical professionals have worked through a coordinated framework in teams to success in the clinical practices (Grossman, 2012). More lives are being saved in clinical facilities where coaching, as well as mentoring, has been encouraging and as a result, teamwork emerges to tackle medical conditions together leading to quality care to the patients.

Clinical practices require successful planning of procedures as a way of making the clinical practices safe for the patients (Grossman, 2012). Coaching and mentoring, therefore, has been integrated into clinical practices to plan successfully for activities within the clinical facilities (Narayanasamy & Penney, 2014). It has been established through research that changing definition of work-life balance, as well as demographics required the clinical practitioners to plan for their clinical activities with patients, need coming fast leading to an organized procedure of attending to patients (Bridges et al., 2013). Also, as a senior nurse, one has to learn to schedule his or her programs procedurally. This calls for proper training activities that are supported by coaches and mentors hence assisting the senior nurses to plan for major and critical clinical activities to come fast on their schedule.

Use of Mentoring and Coaching in Clinical Settings

Mentoring has been employed in various circumstances in the clinical practices as follows.

First, mentoring is used to retain nurses as well as a nurse educator (Narayanasamy & Penney, 2014). Both nurses and nursing educators need the motivation of various kinds such as spiritual, skills and personal development motivation which can be encouraged through mentoring sessions (Grossman, 2012). Doing an activity on a daily basis can become so boring at times, therefore, a mentorship program in nursing practices is aimed at motivating the nurses to continue providing quality care to the patients during any clinical procedure (McNamara, et al., 2014). Mentored nurses and nursing educators, therefore are likely to be retained in a medical facility more that the clinicians who are not motivated through a mentoring process.

Mentoring is also used to help the nurses to possess within themselves a long-term view of the nursing profession (Bridges et al., 2013). The nursing is known to be a challenging profession field that needs nurses that are confident and focused on offering patients the best care (Grossman, 2012). Therefore, through thorough mentorship programs within the medical facilities for the nurse, enable them to see the bigger picture and the need to sacrifice their time and resources to help save lives of patients.

On the other hand, coaching is used in nursing at points that the clinical facilities have talented nurses who are not making use of their potentials to provide quality care to patients (Grossman, 2012). Therefore, coaching will grant the nursed the skills and techniques of handling various clinical procedures in providing quality care to patients hence meeting their expectations as nurses (Narayanasamy & Penney, 2014). Also, caching is used when a new program or procedure is introduced into the clinical practices (Bridges et al., 2013). With coaching, the nursing will implement the new procedures effectively. Coaching also works to increase competency in nurses. Therefore, coaches are called upon to coach the nurses on certain clinical procedures as a move to equip the nurses with required techniques to manage a clinical situation.

Lobbying for Support for Mentoring and Coaching in Nursing

Lobbying for local government financial support for the mentoring and coaching in nursing activity is by writing a memorandum to the ministry of health that address the current state of a nurses (Grossman, 2012). With a well-written level of competence as presented by nurses in the health facilities, the ministry of health within the federal government has to act fast by facilitating coaching and mentoring programs in nursing facilities as well as nursing homes (Bridges et al., 2013). The current studies show that the clinical facility is filled with older nurses who are unable to adapt to changing technologies in the health practices by themselves (McNamara, et al., 2014). Therefore, mentorship and coaching will be a lifesaving nurse will be reskilled in time. The ministry has the mandate to release the funds as well as organize for national coaching and mentorship programs for the nurses periodically.

In addition, I would encourage the community-based organization heads, NGO’s head, human right commissioners as well as senior medical practitioners to work together by presenting the state of nurses to the governors (Bridges et al., 2013). The main aim of coordination framework is to make the local government support coaching and mentorship programs finically to the nurses to encourage quality healthcare to the patients (McNamara, et al., 2014). In the case the local government fails to respond to the demands of funding coaching and mentorship of nursing programs both in clinical facilities and nursing homes, I would call for a peaceful demonstration by the medical practitioners with an aim of forcing the local government to channel more funds for coaching and mentoring nurses (Thompson et al., 2012).


Coaching and mentoring in nursing has paid a vital role in skilling as well as motivating nurses in clinical facilities to provide quality care to the patients. Therefore, coaching and mentoring should me a must program for the nursing professionals as this will enable them to meet the current in clinical set up with lots of experience and competence hence improved care to the patients. The local government should fund mentorship and coaching programs to the nurses periodically as a move of making clinical procedures carried out by the nurses safe as well as improve the evidence-based nursing practices.



Within an organization, various managers often adopt different methods of motivating employees. To some managers, employees can be motivated by either recognition, coaching, leadership opportunities, breaks from the norm or through offering increment in salaries. At times, the bonus may serve to motivate other employees in certain organizations. Motivation aims at inspiring the employees as a means to recognize their efforts towards achieving the objectives of the organization. In the Unites States of America as well as other industrialized countries, are currently devising other methods of motivating young employees within the organization. These companies have resolved to pay off student’s Loans for their young employees. Other students have considered it a form of motivation as argued out by expectancy theory while others have badly formed opinions against the motivational method of their respective companies.

The expectancy theory is one motivational theory that was developed by Victor Vroom. According to Vroom, the expectancy theory tends to draw a clear boundary between performance, outcomes and efforts. Besides, to Vroom, this theory presents a scenario that explains that employees tend to draw their behaviors from conscious chooses from the many alternatives they have as they aim at maximizing pleasure while minimizing occurrences of pain. Therefore, to attract rewards as a form of motivation from the employees, their performance is entirely based on their individual factors such as knowledge, skills, personality, abilities as well as experience.

According to the employers of these fresh graduates as their employees, they employ the expectancy theory. According to Vroom, expectancy defines the belief that due to increased efforts of the employees by their school loan being settles, their work performance will equally double. As the young employees think, in the case, they work smarter and harder; their performance will increase, and their debts will be settled quickly as a form of motivation by the management. Most of these organization capitalize on the skills and the energy these young employees have from campus. And with requires skills, available resources as well as the necessary support by the management, they will give their best interims of performance. Therefore, the management will equally settle their loans debts promptly.

Some young employees view this form of motivation with relief thus their spirit performance increases. These are employees who are constantly worried about their loan debts and have no or little means of settling the debts promptly. Therefore, as examined by Vroom, the students capitalize on “instrumentality” of the theory. According to Vroom, instrumentality defines the belief that if one performs well, he or she will receive a valuable outcome, motivation. Guided by the principle of instrumentality, the if she does more work well, the outcome will also be of more value hence their inspiration of working hard towards attaining the motivational gift which is payment of loan debts in this case.

Well, other students are not taking this form of motivation kindly. As employees of the company, they believe that their efforts should be made in a manner that portrays equality within the workplace. For instance, if bonus is the reward for good work in a company, all the employees should be rewards through the same procedure. They don’t wish to have their bonus as a form of motivation go to the payment debts of their school loans. That is why there have been cases of demonstration in the U.S, for the young employees who think this is not one of the methods of motivating employees of a company.

Expectancy theory of motivation, have helped other student as their work is honor by settling their loans debts. By this means, their debts will be paid with speed taking away the stress of paying debts with the passage of time since interest also increase periodically.

Work cited

Business law case studies: Elmer and Thomas, and Beverley, Bambi, and Josie



Beverley, Bambi, and Josie on October 1, 2008, moved into a large apartment of Joseph Storey managed by Ms. Tremp. The would-be tenants realized that the building had a notice of condemnation on the front of the building. Upon inquiry on what was to be concerning the condemnation notice, Ms. Tremp only said that Storey, the building owner, was a well-connected local politician. The tenants arrived and were told if they were to make the repaired by themselves, the first two months were free. Hence, they could pay no rent. Therefore, the moved in and did various repairs but the conditions of the building got worse as well as unhealthy to the extent that some tenants got ill and rushed to the hospital. Concerning repaired terms, the property manager confirmed to the tenants that any property they found within the house at the time of repair, they were free to own it. Hence, Bambi come across $ 2,500,000 in some envelopes.


Do the tenants have a right to reclaim compensation in a case they occupied a condemned building under full knowledge?


Condemnation, as defined, is the (1) judgment or (2) sentence that a (3) court (4) issues to a (5) property owner that declares the property to be (6) unfit for service. The federal laws recommend that the tenants should vacate a condemned building, and no new tenants should have to reoccupy such a building unless the new tenants do so without such information


The statues on condemnation property state that once the building is inspected by the building inspection agencies and declared unfit, then the tenants should be issued with vacation notice. Upon the condemnation of the building, and the owner does not comply with the order, then a building will be placed in a public referred to as nascence hearing process to find out if the building is demolished.

The property manager defied the condemnation order and influenced the new tenants to occupy the condemned buildings. In addition, the building manager violates the States’ Sanitary codes which are a crime punishable by a court of law. Also, the new tenants had the right to keep off the condemned property, but they failed by listening to the building manager. For the complainants, who are the new tenants, have a right to full compensation.


Since it is entirely the house manager to blame, the complaints have a right to claim compensation since their health statuses were moving from good to bad and to becoming worse by the passage of time due to unsanitary conditions. In this case, the landlord should grant the tenants are moving expense which is specified in the legal documents on condemned buildings within the Sates’ jurisdictions.

In addition, the building should be vacated by all the tenants and repairs done by the landlord after which the building inspectors can confirm the conditions of the house. Upon reaching points of satisfactory, the condemnation notice con is withdrawn. Hence, the budding can be preoccupied with the tenants. Since the residents had entered into contracts with the building manager, all the money found by Bambi should be in Bambi’s custody. Additionally, as the law of inheritance states, all the documentations of the Will must be respected and followed by the court of law. Therefore, the Bambi remains the real heir of Sammy as stated in the Will



Elmer and Thomas both married men whose wives have actively participated in the business for 15years, and they have been sharing the profits equally. Thomas has plans ask Fudd to run the business upon his retirement. Fudd recommends that Thomas incorporates the business before he retires. Unfortunately, Elmer dies without a will and Fudd immediately takes up his responsibilities in the company.


Does the Widow have a chance to receive a share of profits in the place of her husband?

Should Elly receive all the benefits?

Should Frenzy replace her father?


Partnership defines a union of two or more people who carries on as the co-owners of an organization and share profits Act. R.S.O. 1990, c. P.5, s. 2. The law distinguishes partnership as general, joint ventures as well as a limited partnership. General partnership legally defines a case whereby the partners will equally divide profits as well as management responsibilities.


In the of the absence of a written document on partnership, the partnership would end whenever a partner gives s notice of his or her express to leave. Therefore, in the absence of a written partnership like in this situation, Thomas, and Elmer, the partnership act gives the parties equal rights even if the partners contribute. In addition, in a general partnership, whenever one member like in this case Elmer, dies, the partnership dissolves. In the case that a written document exists, then the rules will govern the treatment that the business heirs would obtain. In addition, to avoid future disputes between the families, a decision is to be made to renegotiate the terms and condition in forming a joint venture. And if no conclusion made, the law, allows both the partners to liquidate the business and share the profits equally, that is to the widows’ family and the family of Thomas.


Since no rules and documentation existing in this type of partnership the widow is, therefore, advices to resolved on the dissolution of the partnership upon which the business will be liquidated and profit shared equally between the two partnership families.

To Frenzy and Fudd, both can have renegotiated the deal and enter into a new partnership. From the death of the father, Frenzy should push for the incorporation of the business since it is easier to deal with a documented business partnership be it a joint venture or a limited. Upon the establishment of the business under the ownership pf both Fudd and Frenzy, the set rules and regulation will dictate how to work, as well as management duties, are delegated, and the profits also shared according to the rules in place.

I addition, the joint venture or a limited partnership is more secure in the case that one member dies like in the case of Elmer. The heirs are all included in the agreement documents that are signed during the creation of a partnership. Therefore, the security of the partners is ensured at all time. In addition, the members of the family in the case they wish to continue as a one single business unit, then the decisions to be mad on whether to uphold the business as joint venture or as a general partnership under the management of both Fudd, son to Thomas and Frenzy, the daughter of the late.


Food Insecurity

Task A


Food insecurity defines a condition to which constant access to enough food is limited due to lack of resources such as money within a given period (Bell et al., 2015). Therefore, an individual or people may not live active as well as healthy life or have the conviction of obtaining food in a socially acceptable process. Statistic of on food insecurity in Sydney reports that one in every fifty older people experienced food insecurity within a period of twelve months (Booth and Whelan, 2014). Additionally, more than one-third of the women with children in Sydney experienced a shortage of enough food due to difficulties they experience in meeting daily expenses such as food (Crawford et al., 2014). Similarly, of the individuals reviewed around localities of Sydney, about twenty-eight percent reported the purchase of low quality of food in a bid to save money (Ingram, Ericksen and Liverman, 2012). Individuals within a society may experience food insecurity due to lack of one, resources such as money and access to transport. Two, inability to access affordable, nutritious foods. Three, failure to access food due to geographical isolation and lastly, lack of any knowledge about the existence of nutritious diet in a locality.

Specific Issue

Food insecurity caused by the cost of food as well as household income is of interest to this study (Bell et al., 2015). Sydney is a town and a business hub located at the harbors of New South Wales, Australia. The harbor is accessible to most of the merchants hence food availability is ensured. A scenario arises that leads to the target group experiencing food insecurity (Booth and Whelan, 2014). Therefore, it is due to cost of the food and household low-income that majorly contributes to food insecurity among the target group.

Target Group

The beneficiaries as well the target group to this study are the people from low-income households of Sydney’s family. The children are from the low income earning households require to be sent to school, feed, clothed and their medical bill met time after time. Therefore, this study aims to provide the target group with strategies and solutions to address their inability to afford enough to eat and meet other bills.

Task B

Public Health Nutrition Consideration

Currently, food insecurity is categorized among the social determinants of health which has time and again compromised the health of the children from the low-income children in Sydney’s local households (Bell et al., 2015). The low-income earners often have little food and sometimes unbalanced diet for their children. Studies reveal that food insecurity often exposes the children to clinical conditions including their parents (Farahbakhsh et al., 2016). With the low-income neighborhood, due to their economic status lack farmers’ market and groceries to which the residents can purchase varieties of quality dairy products, vegetables and other foodstuffs (Stirling, 2014). The low-income neighborhoods, therefore, possess limited corner stores where food products of low nutritious value can be purchased if available to feed the children and other families (Watts, Thorpe and Blechynden, 2015). The low nutritious value food products, therefore, lead to unbalanced diets hence malnutrition cases to the children from the low-income neighborhoods in Sydney.

Similarly, in the case healthy foods are available, the low-income households due to lack of enough capital may not afford such foods since they are expensive (Stirling, 2014). Research points that most of the low-income households would try stretching their food budget with an aim of purchasing cheap food staff. Therefore, the less expensive food is linked to the energy giving food often less nutritious (Crawford et al., 2014). Through overconsumption of the calories forms the energy foods, such households are linked to obesity which is a major public health concern among the low-income household not only in Sydney but also across the globe.

Besides, in the absence of food in the low-income households, studies show that such people may incur cycles of food deprivation as well as overeating (Booth and Whelan, 2014). Skipping meals by the low-income individuals may encourage them to purchase much food when money is available thereby resulting to chronic upsets of the body systems hence leading to weight gain (Crawford et al., 2014). Additionally, deprivation of food has been medically linked to cases of eating disorders, metabolic changes as well as an unhealthy preoccupation with food which often leads to fat storage.

Studies also report that scarcity of food among the low-income households often live in anxiety coupled with stress leading to poor mental health (Ghattas et al., 2013).  Anxieties often result from emotional pressure of food insecurity and their financial position. With limited financial access, the low-income household members may not access better health care provisions hence increasing incidences of depression and stress by such individuals (Stirling, 2014). Studies also link stress to poor mental development to children and obesity. Children also suffer deficiency diseases during their development such as kwashiorkor, rickets and marasmus among others.

Task C

Addressing Food Insecurity

  1. Community food security program

The program is designed to enable all householders to acquire safe and adequate nutrition in a socially acceptable way to improve their nutritional status. The aim of this program is to achieve food sustainability as well as social justice (Stirling, 2014). Under sustainability, the program embarks on promoting sustainable agricultural practices such as use of organic materials which are cheap and affordable to the low-income earners in Sydney (Booth and Whelan, 2014). The programs also aim at developing and promoting an active marketing channels hence the consumers, as well as farmers in such localities, does not travel a longer distance to acquire foodstuff or sell their products in distant marketplaces (Smith and Blumenthal, 2012).

Social justice according to this program refers to factors that promote injustices of hunger as well as food insecurity within a country (Crawford et al., 2014). Alternatively, social justice lack of adequate wages to individuals whose lives depends on agriculture. Therefore, farmers, farm workers, food service workers as well as food processing workers should receive enough wages to meet their household’s nutritional needs (Booth and Whelan, 2014). Therefore, this program in conjunction with the federal government will plan and to initiate sustainable agriculture to the low-income people as well as fund the farmers to begin farm practice.

The limitation of this program is that it may take some time before actualization since the government has to get ready to fund the process (Smith and Blumenthal, 2012). Land allocation to groups of people for farming activity is equally a process that must be pursued with accuracy and consideration. Also, mobilization of the low-income households to participate in Community food security program may not be an easy process.

  1. Community Health Program

Community health program set up at the localities of low-income household will be a milestone in solving the nutritional problems to the residents (Smith and Blumenthal, 2012). The program aims at equipping people with skills as well as increasing the commitment of community stakeholder and leaders to establish and pursue promotional programs that help the people to make healthy choices in their houses, surroundings and areas of work (Ghattas et al., 2013). Key components of this program are healthy eating and physical activity. Therefore, the establishment of public health facilities is of the essence to enable the caregivers to provide elaborate health based programs to the participants (Crawford et al., 2014). The Community health program will devise strategies to inform and educate the locals on the required eating habits and physical activities (Watts, Thorpe and Blechynden, 2015). Additionally, the learning institutions will be integrated to accommodate most health issues affecting the areas residents to their curriculum to help the children adopt good healthy eating habits to eradicate instance of obesity.

A limitation of this program will be acquiring the resources by the organizers to establish public health facilities in the low-income areas as well as mobilization of the entire community to engage in the new process (Gichunge et al., 2015). Also, Community health program would require the low-income households to adopt to the rules and regulations developed by the public health caregivers (Stirling, 2014). Change is known to be gradual hence other people the program schedule may choose to ignore change brought about by the Community health program.

Task D

Proposed Strategy

Establishment of Educational and Community-Based strategy is meant to develop plans to prevent disease, injuries as well as improve health among the low-income households thus ensuring quality life (Smith and Blumenthal, 2012).


The educational and community-based program strategy is founded on fundamental principle (Stirling, 2014). One, enhance quality of life by engaging the community in food generation and healthy consumption of food. Two, improve health by providing the low-income households with skills to make healthy choose on their diet (Jones et al., 2013).  Three, prevent diseases and injury among the people through the establish healthcare system. Despite the fact that food insecurity is a threat to the health of individuals, household and entire community, will use available resources resource such as land, capital and labor to produce enough food for the people. Additionally, this strategy will pursue a better health system through the educational and community-based program.

How The Strategy Works

Under the umbrella of educational and community-based strategy, the three activities will be pursued as follows (Jones et al., 2013). Different educational set ups would be established such as schools, health care facilities and community farmlands. The schools would be for the young people where healthy eating habits are taught (Lawrence, Richards and Lyons, 2013). Bad eating habits adopted by the young in low-income households often leads to obesity and other nutritional condition.  The learners gain the skills of making informed choices about their diets and what they consume.

The community farmlands, on the other hand, would ensure that the low-income households combine resources to engage in communal food production activities (Watts, Thorpe and Blechynden, 2015). Others can provide labor, capital and other inputs as the program organizers supplement them. The organizers under the professionals guide each group on the chosen agricultural activities. Others may choose to produce rice, vegetables as others rear birds and fish (Smith and Blumenthal, 2012). At some point, the firm products would be mature to be harvested, and consumed and surplus sold to earn income. With enough food to be consumed the low-income households will not suffer food-related disorders hence food security.

Health facilities under this strategy will be established to ensure that the low-income households have access better healthcare irrespective of economic status or cultural and ethnic backgrounds (Smith and Blumenthal, 2012). The sick among the low-income households will acquire health assistance to them hence keep healthy to work in improving their economic conditions in ensuring that food availability to their children (Gichunge et al., 2015). From time to time, the health caregivers would be required to carry out public education to the low-income households on the skills for choosing better diets and managing their nutritional programs to prevent further nutritional conditions.


One strength of the educational and community-based strategy is that it covers a wider perspective of the community (Smith and Blumenthal, 2012). The program addresses economic conditions of the low-income households that ensure food security and sustainability. The health programs and established health facilities ensures that the entire families are attended to, and their health conditions addressed (Gichunge et al., 2015). The households’ nutritional requirements and programs are equally addressed, and the nutritional diseases are eradicated as well with time.

Seconds, both the young and the adults will gain from the strategy since it accommodates the entire households (Herbert et al., 2014). Everyone from the households is cared for and helped to make chose on the food materials they consume to avoid nutritional disorders early in life.


Acknowledging the programs by the low-income households is a likely challenge to the program organizers (Herbert et al., 2014). The participants are people with different goals in life, therefore getting them to conform to a single goal would be a greater challenge.

Also, the federal government would be slow at financing such good intended approaches to solving food insecurity (Jones et al., 2013). The government processes are often slow as various channels to achieve the actual funding takes time. Therefore, with little capital the program organizers may be unable to accomplish the entire process.

Finally, the entire program may be hindered in the case of natural disasters such as drought which may lead to failure of the agricultural activities aimed at achieving food security.


Food insecurity among the low-income households is a current problem in Sydney, Australia. Food insecurity may be caused by inability to access affordable, nutritious foods, failure to access food due to geographical isolation and lastly, lack of any knowledge about the existence of nutritious diet in a locality. Therefore, educational and community-based strategy would be of importance since it addresses both knowledge and health skill required by the low-income households to acquire enough food and access better healthcare at the same time. This strategy upon development will be a success to ensure food security among the low-income households in Sydney, Australia.