Sex Offenders Rehabilitation

Sex offender treatment

This is a person who has been convicted of having committed a sex offence or crime. What constitutes of sex crime varies with culture and legal legislation. Unlike many crimes, sex offences instill bad feelings and fear among citizens in a given country. Right after incarceration, an assessment is carried out on the sex offender by the concerned psychologists and criminologists specializing in this area. The main aim is to establish the best program that can be used as the best treatment for that particular individual. The assessment continues all throughout the sentence period prior to the release into the community. Research shows that there is not much difference realized even after treating sex offenders. However, after rehabilitation the sex offenders are less likely to reoffend (Tierney & McCabe, 2005). Their rates reduce to approximately ten percent as compared to those who do not receive rehabilitation, whose rates stands at about seventeen percent.

The treatment process

The sex treatment process incorporates several aspects. It will focus on the treatment of the faulty and negative mindedness of the sex offender. It will also try to lay its efforts in addressing the unhealthy emotions exhibited by the sex offender. In addition, the program will also try to lay focus on healthy sexuality as well as stress management techniques. The treatment process will also focus on methods and strategies that aim at combating any deviant psychological arousal conditions that may be exhibited by the sex offender (Hunter, 2006).

 Alternative modalities

Apart from the counseling aspects discussed above, some laws have been formulated that aim at minimizing the rates of sex crime as well as trying to combat recidivism among the sex offenders. Based on the case at hand, sex offenders may be subjected to severe sentences.

References

Hunter, S. V. (2006). Understanding the complexity of child sexual abuse: A review of the literature with implications for family counseling. The Family Journal, 14 (4), 139-358.

Tierney, D. W., & McCabe, M. P. (2005). The utility of the Trans-theoretical Model of Behavior Change in the treatment of sex offenders. Sexual Abuse. A Journal of Research and Treatment, 17(2), 153-170.

Semiotic interpretation of Dexter Television Show

Dexter is a television show that was produced in 2006. Episode one of season one is an investigation of the Ice Truck Killer. Dexter is a serial killer introduced in the first episode. The serial killer targets prostitutes. Once he kills them, he leaves their bodies severed and bloodless. Dexter has a foster sister known as Debra Morgan. She is a vice squad officer who aspires to work in the homicide department. Dexter also has a girlfriend called Rita Bennett. Rita wants Dexter to have an intimate relationship with her. A semiotic interpretation of episode one will be done in this paper.

Dexter is a forensic blood splatter analyst and works in Miami Police Department. There are values and norms that come up in the first episode of Dexter Season one. Even though the episode is about serial killer and investigation of deaths taking place, there are values that come from the message of this episode. It is evident that Killing is culturally denounced and is viewed as a bad thing. This is why Dexter’s foster father teaches him how to kill but tells him never to get caught. It is evident that killing is a crime and is not allowed in the society.  There is also the value of love displayed from Dexter’s message. Parental love has contributed to Dexter being who he is the society. Dexter was orphaned when he was a little child. He lost his parents and the way this happened traumatizes his memory. He is distanced from people. His foster father, Harry noticed this distance with people. Dexter started killing animals. Dexter had homicidal incidences. Due to the love that Harry had for him, he decided to help Dexter channel his desires.

He teaches Dexter to hide actions from police investigations. He also tells him that he must kill those who escape the law. Dexter have a Code and rule one is that he should never be caught. The other rule is to kill those he knows without doubts are killers.  Harry shows his love for Dexter by training him to become a serial killer. Even though this is evil and unacceptable in the society, his love for his adopted son makes him teach him to become who he is now. The love of orphaned children is displayed in this movie. Through flashbacks, the boy spends time with her foster father talking about his dreams.  The message is about killing and blood.

The show represents a theme of recurring image of blood. The first image shown in the show is Dexter killing a mosquito. The mosquito is about to feast on his skin. It leaves a blood splat on his skin. Dexter is happy after killing the mosquito. The episode begins with a title Dexter with the color of blood and also accompanied by blood splatters. All along one thinks that the show will be about blood. Dexter cuts himself and does not seem to feel any pain. The viewer may expect to see Dexter cutting people and squeezing their blood. On the contrary, Dexter uses the image of an orange. He cuts the orange perfectly and into equal parts. He applies pressure to squeeze the bloody red contents from the orange. This leaves him with a bloody liquid.  This image is contradicting the message. It is true that the message is about death and blood. However, the use of the orange image can confuse the viewer.  This is a metaphor that represents Dexter’s victims. Cutting them like the orange satisfies his cravings and then disposes the bodies.  There is also the choice of the non-diegetic music that is used to accompany the images. This choice is contradicting in terms of typical codes and conventions for a murder mystery Television programme.  The music that is played in this television program is joyful and bouncy. This contradicts the message of murder. The music does not relate to horror or crime that take place in Dexter show.

Dexter is a show that has a wide range of audience.  The show is unique and has different genres which include crime drama, action and comedy. The target audience includes young people and middle aged adults.  The show has action and suspense and can be appropriate for the young people who are hardened and love watching crime dramas. It also has romance that makes the show intriguing and those who love melodrama watch the show. However, audiences of all kinds love the show and do watch it.  The show being an open narrative, it keeps it audience tuned in because it its loose ends are present.  The seasons leave the audience in suspense and one yearn to watch the next season.

Dexter as a show creates a sense of sympathy for the serial killer. The agenda of this show is to display culture of Miami. This is a form of educating the audience who has no idea of the culture. The co workers at the police station are Latinos. Their race is represented in a positive way.  The other cultural agenda is on women and work. Most cultures think that women are not strong enough to carry out some duties. Deborah who is Dexter’s sister is a cop. She is hardworking and strong both physically and mentally.  She is professional and is able to work as the male cops do.  In another instance, there is a cultural-political agenda of the show.  This is concerned with the justice system.  The police and detectives are competent but criminals are not apprehended as a result of politics and rules of the justice system.  Criminals manage to escape the law but later become Dexter’s victims.

Dexter show is viewed as a horror program whereby serial killing takes place. in the first instance, the audience may think that Dexter is a disturbed child who lost his parents in a tragedy. Most people fear death and may think of Dexter as an evil character. However the surface meaning of this show is on humanity.  When season one is introduced, one may think that it is going to be horror. However, it keeps n attracting the audience.  One feels the need to learn more about this serial killer. Dexter is however a different person. He is friendly and able to connect with the audience. He says that there are no secrets in life but hidden truths that lie beneath the surface.  Humans have different experiences in life. There are god and evils that human beings expose.  There is no human society where evil and good does not exist. Dexter television show provides an example of such a society where evil and good is displayed. It educates people on what happens in their societies on a day to day basis.

Work Cited

YouTube. Dexter Season 1. Retrieved August 12, 2014 from

Safeguarding in Health and Social Care Organization

Task 1 A

It is the responsibility of every health professional to provide high quality services to patients regardless of their social, cultural, religious, or economic backgrounds. Every patient should receive quality healthcare services without prejudice. Hill croft nursing homes are located in East London with the main goal of providing the best and latest health care services to all patients with different nursing requirements. Nurses and care assistants are distributed among all the five nursing homes, and these dedicated professionals are committed to providing friendly, warm, and homely atmosphere to all patients regardless of their backgrounds. It guiding principle is to provide highest quality service possible to all patients, and the nursing home has always been pursuing its objective of improving its service quality day in day out. However, just like it is the case with most of the health care units all over the world, Hill Croft nursing homes have been faced with a scandal that has caused both abuse and self-harm among the service users. This paper aims to review the review the issue as well as identify other modern time scenarios that can be related to the scenario at Hill Croft Nursing Home.

It is ironical that many patients all over the world go through great suffering in the hands of health professionals, who are expected to provide comfort and help these patients from languishes. Such a phenomenon is evident in Hill Croft Nursing Homes, where estimated eight patients suffered in the hands of four health professionals of the renowned nursing home. The eight patients included seven men and one woman and were between the ages of seventy and eighty. All the eight patients are said to have suffered from dementia, and these medics had mocked and bullied the patients as their assumption was that the patients would not be able to remember the abuses out because of the old age. These patients were also pelted with bean bags. One of a man’s feet was nearly tipped out of a wheelchair while the other was deliberately stamped on. All the four medics are accused in jail, and the ruling judge attribute the same as an indictment to the managers of the homes. This is because it has been found that the management was aware of the existence of some evil behaviors among the staffs. However, the management did not put in place adequate mechanisms that would address such vices. The cases were earlier reported to the managers but then the managers decided there was no adequate evidence that would warrant suspension of the four medics. However, the home suspended the medics but this was not mentioned to any concerned bodies that visited the facilities. The medics were later reinstated until the intervention of the court that ordered the arrests. Families to the victims were very touched, and most expressed their concerns over the ingratitude of the nursing home. All of them expressed their distress towards the home that was supposed to look after the patients. Much of guilt engraved the families of the families for trusting strangers to care those family members. They also expressed resentment after the learning of betrayal of the total trust that was given to a nursing home (BBC 10 January 2014, p. 1).

The health condition of an individual is a key factor that can make an individual vulnerable to abuse and self-harm. For instance, some people exhibit mental disorders resulting from stress and depression as well as other genetic related issues. From the case scenario of the Hill Croft nursing home, all the eight patients are believed to have suffered from varied mental disorders. This makes the nurses to mistreat the patients since they believed that these patients would not be able to recall the abuses because of poor memory. Age is also a key central factor that contributes to abuse and self-harm. Old age is associated with senility. People who are in their old ages have a high tendency of losing their memories. From the above case, the ages of the eight victims are said to lie between seventy and eighty years. The four professionals have taken the advantage of this factor in order to mistreat the patients.

There are several risk factors that would have contributed to patients being subjected to abuse and self-harm. These would include social, cultural, economic, and political factors. For instance, from the Hill Craft Nursing Home scenario cultural factors as well as social factors may have led to the mistreatment subjected towards the involved patients. The patients could have suffered abuse on the basis of discrimination by the medics. These patients could also have come from poor backgrounds. In most cases and especially in the modern times, people who come from families with poor backgrounds are ill-treated in many places to include health care centers. On the contrary, the elites receive high quality healthcare services as well as respect from the healthcare professionals.

Task 1 B

Many social and cultural factors have contributed to the increased cases of both abuse and self-harm in the health care facilities. Such factors have impacted negatively on the health care sector eventually inflicting hardships on the patients. Poverty has been prevalent in many parts of the world. Many people in these countries are living below the poverty lines and as such they cannot be able to cater for their medical bills. There a wide financial gap that is created by the financial difference between the rich and the poor. The biggest proportion of the population comprises of people who are less advantaged. In the modern society, poor people are likely to receive low quality healthcare services in the health care centers. They are also given little attention unlike the elite and the rich of the society who are pampered and treated with much care. In ability to cater for medical bills as well as the cold treatment that such poor people receive from the medics may continuously impact negatively on those patients. They will experience self-pity that may eventually lead into stress and depression. As a result of depression, such patients may also opt to turn into drug abuse out of frustrations and dismays.

Education is another factor that has impacts on both abuse and self-harm. Emerging technologies have contributed to the lives of many people in both positive and negative ways. Technology has provided a platform through the internet where individuals can carry out research. Instead of going to hospitals for examination and treatment some people have opted to do research over the internet in order to establish whatever they could be suffering from. Based on the symptoms, a knowledgeable individual can acquire relevant information via search engines such as ‘google.’   However, all information provided on the internet is not genuine and hence can be misleading. Such individuals may find information that may not address their illnesses. At other times, the results, without a medical examination, can be misleading. The person doing the ‘internet search’ may become stressed up especially if the results are not appealing. He/she may end up in drug abuse and at times even commit suicide.

Segregation and discrimination are prevalent in the modern times, and it is practiced in many countries all across the world. Immigrants and minority groups have been the ones who have felt the effects of discrimination. In the workplaces, public places, social places, as well as health care centers discrimination has been the order of the day. Some of the groups have been treated as the ‘inferior’ groups while others are perceived as being a ‘superior’ groups. Those people coming from the superior groups receive the high quality education eventually securing the best job opportunities both in the public and private sectors. This is not in the exclusion of the health care centers. The financially weak as well as those coming from the ‘inferior cultures’ experience increased cases of discrimination in health care centers. They have received poor quality treatments compared to those patients coming from the ‘superior cultures’ of the majority groups. Discrimination is a social vice and leads into depression and self-pity as an individual considers him/her ‘inferior.’ He/she is likely to spend much time contemplating over the reasons that may have made him/her receive cold treatment from the medics. He is thus likely to develop issues of depression and antisocial personality disorders. This may not only lead to mental disorders but rather suicidal cases. People are likely to find no value or essence of living if at all what they receive is cold treatment and as such they will opt to take away their lives.

Some religions have banned their followers from receiving medical treatment from healthcare centers. They believe in a supreme being that provides protection and cure to all ailments and as such no one will be allowed to visit a hospital for medication. Such religions will not even allow taking of pain killers implying that victims will suffer languish from severe pains. As a result of such afflictions, such victims are likely to develop stress as well as get emotional. They are likely going to suffer from depression as well as grow weak physically.

Task 2

The world, today, has been filled with people who are concerned with only their own individual interests and self-oriented benefits at the expense of others. Innocent people, and especially children, have been subjected to unthinkable hardships that leave them psychologically or physically handicapped, and sometimes even claim their innocent lives. At times, these cases have gone unnoticed thereby depriving such victims of their rights and freedoms. However, in some cases, offences of such forms and magnitude have been identified but the worst thing is that the culprits go unpunished. The relevant agencies have failed in one way or the other, and it is because of such ignorance and failure that vulnerable groups are subject to abuse in the hands of those believed and trusted to protect them. The Daniel Pelka’s case is an issue that has attracted increased public concerns for lack of multidisciplinary action against those behind his murder. This is in spite of the fact that the names of these murderers have been brought to book and the media has been very effective in covering all the hardships that Daniel went through prior to his murder. This paper is going to focus on the unthinkable killing of the innocent four year old boy whose killing rests upon her mother’s hands together with his stepfather.

It is unfortunate that Daniel went for days under starvation and torture and later beaten to death by his mother together with his stepfather. The bad side of it is that no action has been taken against the involved professionals. However, both parents have been jailed for thirty years, each, for the infliction they both caused to the innocent boy.  Prior to his death, innocent boy had been suffering in silence for a relatively long period, and police had come to his protection over various attempted murders. In the school, he is said to have shown distress, starvation, and his weight was only eleven kilograms prior to his death. His mother was a drunkard, and he used to come in with different lovers and fell into violent rows and police had intervened for a total of 27 times to help the situations, during the short life of Daniel Pelka. During the last days prior to his demise, Daniel is said to resemble and an old man, as he was feeble, wearing sunken eyes, depressed, and always scavenged for food in the school bins and sandpit. It is during such observations that the teachers raised concern to the school head teacher, but the head teacher did nothing over the situation. It was also reported that Daniel’s suffering was ‘invisible’ to officials in Coventry. These officials did not speak to the police regarding the hardships that Daniel was passing through and that eventually sent him to the grave. The boy is said to have been held in a bath until he passed out.

There has been legislation that have been put in place such as those that address issues of liberty and children protection against abuse. It is the role of different professionals, under their capacities, to protect the interest of the vulnerable groups and especially the juveniles. All involved professionals should extend their services and intercommunicate whenever there is a suspect of any abuse subjected towards the vulnerable group. In Daniel’s case, most of the professionals who could be considered to be essential fail in their duties. First, the police fail to save Daniel’s life despite the fact that they have been called into the house for over 27 seven times prior to his death (Robinson 2013, p. 2). Under their skills and capacities, they ought to have suspected such sufferings after inspecting the house that constituted the small, smelly box where Daniel’s unkempt mattress lay. Secondly, the officials at Coventry failed in their duties as they did not notify the police regarding what the small boy was going through. Third, is Daniel’s head teacher who was ignorant and neglected to intervene even after teachers had raised concern over the issue. Finally, experts indicated Daniel’s broken arms as being mere accidents, something that some of his teachers bought into. It is a case that is filled with sympathy even after realizing that practitioners, even with skills and professionalism, could not suspect the unthinkable would happen.

It is the role of all concerned professionals to intervene whenever they suspect an abuse being subjected towards a vulnerable person. For instance, from the above case, officials from Coventry ought to have informed the police in advance about Daniel’s sufferings. The police would then take the necessary actions of persecuting the parents and such would have prevented the killing. The head teacher needs to have alerted children’s affairs agencies who would also intervene and employ the necessary mechanisms in saving the life of Daniel.

Task 3

Health care organizations develop new policies and strategies on a regular basis when deemed necessary. They could also amend the existing policies depending on the situation that needs to be addressed. As a social care worker, it is necessary to have knowledge of such policies and strategies. In East London, these strategies have been applicable on a day to day basis in order to ensure that patients are provided with appropriate and quality health care services. The following have been put in place to minimize cases of abuse. First is confidence, a key central factor in ensuring the privacy of a patient’s information is guaranteed. The health care sector has realized the importance of this provision and as such has put all possible mechanisms of privacy and security existence and growth. Most of the information shared between doctors and their patients is considered important to be kept confidential. Some of the such information touches on very private issues and hence its leak to the public would cause discomfort among the concerned parties. At times, it is also not advisable for the medics to share such information with their colleague doctors and patient’s family members unless the information is considered necessary in the medication process.  For instance, if such information leaks into the public there are high chances of causing emotional discomfort to the patient especially if the information is considered too private.

The health sector in East London has also put strict mechanisms that aim at reduction of issues related to discrimination and segregation projected towards a certain group or community. It is believed that all people are equal regardless of their backgrounds and hence should receive equal health care attention. People should not be divided within ethnic borders or on the basis of skin color. The health sector has realized that segregation and discrimination are key contributors to depression that is dehumanizing both physically and psychologically. As such there has been a dire need to put in place mechanisms and policies that fight against any form of discrimination directed towards the patients (Thornicroft 2011, p. 89).

Because of the increased costs of living, some people have found it difficult and barely impossible to finance their medical bills. They have languished and suffered severe pains in their beds because of lack of finances. This is a major social concern that aggravates both the physical and psychological health of the patients. As such, the government together with the healthcare centers have come together and devised mechanisms such as health care insurance covers that would help reduce cost burdens and depression cases inflicted on the less advantaged of the society.

All the above mentioned strategies have been very effective in addressing cases related to abuse, as well as self-harm. Many people are confident and willing to share information with their doctors because of assured and guaranteed information privacy and security. People are also able to live in peace and harmony when they are treated equally. Reduction and total eradication of discrimination have enabled people to develop a spirit of love towards each other. Insurance policies have made healthcare services accessible to many people in the society.

However, the above strategies can be said to be exhaustive in addressing abuse related issues. Education and improved trainings have to be put in place in order to ensure that medics and other health care professionals are well equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to help them offer quality services to patients. Such will make these professionals become well versed in applying all the above mentioned abuse-control strategies.

Task 4

Health care services rank among the most basic facilities that an individual require in his/her life. On the other hand, a society without justice can be said to be a ‘doomed’ one. Many people all over the world are subjects of medical hardships. Some vulnerable individuals, especially children, have suffered cases of injustices in the hands of those people trusted to care of these little ones. In this essay, I have looked onto issues related to abuse and self-harm in both cases that have proved instances of injustices at some point. I have laid important emphasis on the case scenario at Hill Craft Nursing Homes and the unfortunate demise of the innocent Daniel Pelka. In both cases, I have tried to show how the relevant parties have failed to address the injustices that face the victims in the two case scenarios. For instance, the top management in Hill Croft Nursing Homes was not able to counter face the afflictions that were subjected towards the ten patients. Despite the fact that the management knew of such issues, it ignored them until the government steps in. Likewise, in Daniel’s case, there is failed the contribution by the relevant authorities to address the ill treatment the boy is subjected to during his short life. I have organized the work in a concise and orderly manner and as such can be used by authorities deemed important to address cases of injustices and child abuse.

The purpose of writing of compiling this report has been to meet my academic requirements. However, this is not a limitation as the report can be used by large external authorities in order to create awareness amongst themselves and predict on the ‘unthinkable’ so as to use the necessary mechanisms to prevent last minute rush. For instance, if such a report was accessed by the involved professionals in the case of Daniel, then it would have been possible to save the life of a little boy.

Based on the above information, it is my feeling that as a fresh graduate I will be able to secure my position as a social care worker. I have highlighted key issues negatively affecting the modern society and as such I stand a better chance of securing a position in order to ensure that my opinions are put into application. However, this is subject to the top management’s discussion and their stand.  It is upon the role and mandate of the management to warrant my appointment.

References

BBC 2014, ‘Hillcroft nursing home staff sentenced for resident abuse ,’ 10 January, p. 1.

Robinson, M, 2013, Everyone to blame but no one punished: Teachers, doctors, the police and social workers escape justice after missing 27 chances to save tragic Daniel Pelka, Viewed 22 May 2014, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2423264/Four-year-old-Daniel-Pelka-beaten-starved-death-invisible-authorities-missed-chance-chance-save-report-finds.html

Thornicroft, G, 2011, Oxford textbook of community mental health, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Rousseau’s Discourse on the Origins of Inequality

Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s discourse of inequality has been perceived as the most influential critique of modernity putdown on papers. The main focus of the discourse is to trace the political and psychological impacts of the contemporary society on the nature of humanity and to demonstrate how such impacts came into being.  In order to achieve this, Rousseau gives a clear demonstration of how the evolution of humankind and the subsequent inequality development have a close relationship. The outcome is two tailed in the sense that it tries to give a detailed, clear explanation of the creation of modern man and also a sharp criticism of the modern political institutions that are characterized by many aspects of inequality. According to Rousseau, these challenges can be attributed to modern political institutions. In the social contract, Rousseau tried to resolve some of the problems. According to studies, the discourse was first developed as an entry essay in a competition that was originally run by Dijon academy of Arts and Sciences back in the year 1974. During that time, the essay tried to answer the question as to the primary origin of inequality as well as determining as to whether the natural law authorizes inequality.

Inequality is a prevalent phenomenon in the society tracing its roots to the periods of capitalism. There has been no clear definition of the term ‘natural law’ implying that it is challenging to bring a common connection between the relationships of the terms ‘natural law’ and ‘inequality.’ Human inequality has been attributed to many aspects and does not solely rely on natural law.

Even in the modern society, inequality is a social concern that cannot be treated as a new phenomenon, but something that has been in existence over the years. It is in this regard that Rousseau tried to study and look into the genealogy of inequality as pertains to human kind. According to Rousseau, there are two types of inequalities that are found within the human species. The first inequality is established by nature and as such referred to as the physical or natural inequality. This consists of the difference aspects of bodily strength, health, age, and to some extent some aspects of the soul or the soul. The second is established through the consent of man and is much dependent on some aspects kind of convention and as such referred to as a political or the moral inequality. According to Rousseau, the latter form of inequality is characterized by aspects of different type of privileges enjoyed by a given social class at the prejudice of other members of the society. Such includes situations where the some people are considered as being richer than others, assuming honorable positions as compared to other members of the society.  This is the situation that makes Rousseau wish that if he had a say on the place of birth, then he would have chosen a birthplace in a society that had little or completely no human faculties (Rousseau 26).

It is the wish and desire of any humankind to be a sovereign and to have a say on what happens around his/her life. Everyone would love to live the best life, and no one would love to languish in the spending a hard life. However, because of the lack of such choices many people have been afflicted in spending lives that are full of hardships. The aspect of inequality brings about social imbalance leaving the poor and afflicted with wishes that of having a choice to spend a good life like that of their well to do counterparts in the society. This is well-revealed from the wishes that Rousseau had. According to him, it would have been his wish that no one in the society would have a say in regard to his life.

In addition, the law brings about some imbalances in the society. There have been evolutions of many political institutions that have come up bringing about some imbalances in the society. The well to do in the society have been treated as being ‘superior’ as compared to the less advantaged who have very little say in the society. In order to regulate and control the behaviors of humankind, there has been the formation of laws acting within different government systems. Leaders are the key drivers who steer how the leadership should be conducted within any organization. However, following the social rankings of different individuals in the society, some of the individuals ranking higher in the society are known to interfere with such political institutions. Such individuals make use of their financial strengths in order to influence the law formalities, something that the poor have not been happy about. For instance, Rousseau is much against the idea that anyone would be above the law as such a situation would make others serve under the discretion of the former (Rousseau 26).

The present discourse mainly focus on marking the chronological progress of things. According to research, the philosophers who have taken it up on themselves to look into the foundations of societies have long wished that they could go back to the state of nature.  Some of these philosophers have taken no hesitation in ascribing to man. Some have gone ahead in stating that every individual should keep in possession what belongs to them without necessarily explaining the meaning of ‘belongs.’ In addition, other philosophers go ahead in outlining what is meant by strong authority as opposed to the weak. Upon considering the above points, every philosopher is concerned with the definitions and meanings of what authority and government mean. They try to look into what pride, desires, and oppression means as well as trying to bring out the nature and state of how ideas are acquired within any given society.

A good understanding of the raised thesis statement can be reached at by first putting facts aside as the facts have no much effect on the thesis statement. In answering the question, then it is important to focus more on hypothetical and conditional reasoning rather than depending much on historical facts. Rather than ascertaining the actual origin of things, the approach will help in bringing out a good explanation and understanding of the nature of things. To some degrees, nature is believed to have some contributions and impacts on the nature of human life. In other words, nature ‘pre determines’ the destiny of different individuals whereby it is has been perceived as ‘favoring’ some certain individuals while at the same time ‘disfavoring’ other members of the society.

Basing the argument of this essay on the story of creation, it can be stated that every human would be blessed with different supernatural gifts doubled by additional artificial faculties that would be added in a long process. Fromm the hands of nature and following the story of creation, man can be considered as being a superior being having a well-organized system that any other creature. Right form the story of creation it can be asserted that man was the most advantageous as compared to the other creatures in the sense authority was bestowed up on him. God required man to take control over the creation and God provided human beings with all of his needs being provided. The earth was left in its natural nature with the immense forests covering the grounds in order ensure the maintenance of the natural fertility of the land. This was meant to maintain all the animals though the provision of shelter. In the ancient times, people lived under a communalistic system of livelihood where by all individuals combined their efforts to meet their needs.

However, Following natural evolution, men dispersed up and as a result man engaged into a capitalistic system of livelihood where benefits would be harnessed based on individual effort towards the support of hi/her life. This brought about stiff competitions among different individuals where everyone fought towards achieving the most benefits from the available resources. On the basis of individual efforts, some people became more successful as compared to others thereby bringing about the rise of social class status.

Human kind has been subject to many enemies and has continuously faced many issues of injustices within the social settings. He has been left with only little to do in order to guarantee his defensiveness. In other words, man has been faced by many atrocities and challenges in which case he has very little or nothing to do all. For instance, issues of melancholy, old age, and natural calamities and infirmities. It is such atrocities that have continuously contributed to the issues of in equality among members of the society. From the ancient times, the wells to do of the society have continually continued to provide their family members with the basic needs. With old age, the aged become weaker and as such find it difficult in meeting their necessities and as such only rely on the energetic of the society in the provision of the necessities whereby there has been issues of unequal treatment of such individuals based on their social backgrounds.

On the basis of natural law, the concept is an issue of contention especially in cases where there is very little known about ‘law’ and how it relates to nature. This thus brings about challenges in trying to connect natural law and issues of human inequality. There have been several definitions in different books in regard to natural law thereby rising a challenge while trying to arrive at a common definition. The lack of uniformity from all the definitions poses a major challenge of how men can conceive the concept of natural law as it relates to inequality. (Rousseau 35).

As earlier stated, taking into consideration the human society, and considering both the powerful and the weak of society from a disinterested and tranquil perspective, the latter has always faced the oppression of the former. The harshness of the former is directed towards the weakness of the latter in the sense that the powerful uses his/her influences towards the blindness of the weaker. Over the years, the wealthy have always acted to oppress the poor, something that has a strong contribution towards social in equality within the human society. However, according to Rousseau, everything evolving from nature proves to be true in the sense that nature does not lie (Rousseau 39).

From the discussion and on the basis of history, it can be asserted that inequality has its roots from the ancient past. In the olden days, people used to work under communal systems. In those ancient times, every member of the society was treated equally, and there was inexistence of issues of inequalities. However, following natural evolution and following radical changes in the way of human lives, man turned into capitalist systems where every member of the society reaped his benefits on the basis of individual efforts. This brought about competition within and without the societal boundaries and as such some people emerged to be successful that the others thereby bring about the issue of social class.

Over the years, there has been the development of political institutions where laws have been formulated to address some issues found within the society. However, according to the discussion, rather than bringing about cohesiveness, the institutions only facilitate the widening up of the gap between the well to do and the less advantaged of the society by accelerating the levels of inequality. The aspect of inequality among different societal members was accelerated by this system of capitalism. Under the evolution of mankind, inequality can thus be traced back to the capitalist system. However, there has been no clear definition of the term natural law and as such there has been no clear link between inequality and the concept of human inequality.

In conclusion, there are different causes of inequality. However, inequality has been a great concern to the world such that different people have tried to look for a solution to the problem. Many jurisdictions have prohibited discrimination of others based on their age, sex, race, social class color or creed. This is based on the premise that people should be treated equally in the society.

Works Cited

Rousseau, J. J. Basic Political Writings, Sec. ed. United States of America: Hackett Publishing Company, Incorporation. 2011. Print.

 

Rhode Island Nightclub Fire Case Study

Rhode Island Nightclub Fire Case Study

The station nightclub, Rhode Island, was the tragic scene of the fourth deadliest nightclub fire in the history of the United States. This fire happened on February 20, 2003 when a rock band that was having a concert that night used pyrotechnics that ignited the flammable polyurethane soundproofing foam that lined the walls and ceilings which surrounded the stage. The fire spread rapidly from the stage to the ceiling area above the dance floor. The fire filled the club with heavy, choking smoke which overwhelmed even the exit doorways. Within five minutes of the first ignition, flames were observed breaking through the roof. The nightclub’s most familiar outlets were hampered by overcrowding at the building’s main entrance, which was sprinkler free. Many people began to fall and trip while trying to escape. 100 deaths were registered resulting from that deadly fire. Of those deaths, 95 were caused by the inability of the occupants to escape before being overwhelmed by the unsustainable conditions along the exit path (Duval, 2007). The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA, National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST), local and state agencies conducted investigation to determine the technical causes of the business failure to protect the concert attendants that night. This article will explore the recommendations that were brought forth after the investigations and actions taken to avoid a repeat disaster in the future.

A number of recommendations were brought forth to improve the structural safety of buildings as well as improve emergency response procedures and consequently enhance evacuation. NIST urged local and state jurisdictions to adopt and update the fire codes covering nightclubs with adherence to the revised model codes. The implementation of aggressive and effective fire inspection was also among the suggestions. NIST also urged the jurisdictions to ensure that qualified building examiners and fire inspectors to do the job are on staff to enforce the model codes (William Grosshandler, 2005). Another recommendation was to strengthen the requirements of sprinkler systems installation. NIST also recommended that the safety factor for determining the limits of occupancy for new and existing buildings be increased in accordance to the model codes. NIST also looked at the time needed for occupants to egress and urged local and state jurisdiction to increase the factor of safety in that area. NIST also recommended that flammable polyurethane foam use be restricted- or other materials that easily ignite and spread flames rapidly- as a product for interior finishing (William Grosshandler, 2005). The use of pyrotechnics was also to be further limited and research in specific areas conducted to reinforce the recommended changes.

The recommendation to restrict the use of polyurethane foam recognizes the vital role that the flammable finishing products play in the process of igniting and rapid spreading of flames. In the case of the Rhode Island’s fire, this exposed finish product played a significant role in the spread process (Duval, 2007). It is crucial that material testing be performed by bodies such as the NFPA to ensure that the flammability rate of a building product or finish material correlates with the actual hazard. Even more important is the anticipation of situations that may arise which may be inconsistent with the current building code. Perhaps a better way to enforce this is put markings that are easily identifiable by contractors or regulating authorities to decrease the inappropriate use of such products and materials. The failure to adequately suppress the nightclub’s fire during the initial ignition led to its rapid spread. This led to the NIST recommending the installation of sprinkler systems in building model codes. Use of fire sprinklers lowers the room temperature and prevents fire growth to extreme levels. Had they been installed in the nightclub, enough time would have been provided for the concertgoers to evacuate the building with a sound environment being maintained in the club. An aggressive enforcement of automatic sprinklers for all new and existing clubs with occupancy limits regardless of the size is a provision that should not be underplayed if future fire hazards are to be prevented.

References

Duval, R. (2007). The Legacy of Nightclub Fires,”. NFPA Journal, 15-23.

William Grosshandler, N. B. (2005). Report of the Technical Investigation of The Station Nightclub Fire. Washington D.C: U.S. government printing office.

Response to T Latty Thread

Hello Barney,

This letter is a response to the recent legal issues you have encountered concerning your property.

As your lawyer, I would urge you to be strong and know that you will overcome every challenge. There is a saying that says that it is not over until it is over. I am using this personal saying to encourage you to keep calm and know that I will try my best to help you in these cases. Have trust in God that all we work out well, as scripture in the book of Proverbs 3: 5-6 says “Trust in the lord with all your heart and lean not on your own understanding; in all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make tour paths straight.”

In reviewing your incidents, I have identified various cases that we need to address. The first two cases involve your property at the mountains, the other case is on the property you own at the Carolina beach and the other one is on your stolen vehicle.

The fist case on the property you own in the mountains indicates that you bought the land on the basis of joint tenancy. I have identified that the three partners are dead.

You should note that under joint tenancy, all partners have equal shares and may sell their share without the consent of the owners.  Their interest can be attached by creditors. In case of death of a joint tenant, the interest is divided equally among the remaining joint owners (Kubasek et al, 2012).

It is therefore right to say that this land belongs to you only if your friends did not sell the land before they passed on.  However, you should not be excited about this because there is an issue involved in the second case regarding the same property.

There is this gentleman known as Ernest that claims he owned the property openly. He claimed that he has been on the land for 20 years. According to this claim, we could be in problems if he has truth about his claim. Acoording to the North Carolina Statute 1-40, Ernest may be considered the owner of the land. It states,

No action for the recovery or possession of real property, or the issues and profits thereof, shall be maintained when the person in possession thereof, or defendant in the action, or those under whom he claims, has possessed the property under known and visible lines and boundaries adversely to all other persons for 20 years; and such possession so held gives a title in fee to the possessor, in such property, against all persons not under disability. (North Carolina General Assembly – General Statutes C.C.P., s. 23; Code, s. 144; Rev., s. 384; C.S., s. 430.)

We believe that we can still win the case because you have the title deed.

In the case on Carolina beach where your property is situated, I identified that the town authorities want to own your property for development purposes.  It is likely that the town will use the eminent domain to defend their case.  According to Schultz (2010, p. 2) the eminent domain allow the government to acquire public property for the purpose of economic development.  This case is similar to that of Kelo v. City of London.

In the case of Kelo v. City of London, the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the defendant who was the city of London. The defendant presented a successful report that indicated that ownership of the private land would contribute greatly to economic growth and beneficial to the public (Schultz, 2010, p. 2). I am afraid that the court will also rule in favor of the town of Carolina beach.

The other case concerns a theft of a vehicle. It is necessary that you report and follow up with a police officer.  I believe we have a case here and you will get back your vehicle.  First, the vehicle is stolen and sold to a dealer who knowingly purchases the vehicle without caring about legal documents.  It is a crime to purchase a stolen property. According to Kubasek et al (2012, p. 382), receiving and possessing stolen property is a crime.  The buyer ought to have recorded the documents of the person selling the car. Through this, one is able to identify if the car has been registered twice. The owner of the car is considered to be the one whose title deed is registered first.  Barney, you are the legal owner of the car and we shall win this case.

Let us hope that you will possess back what is rightfully yours.

 

Response to T Cook Thread

 

Hello Betty

I am writing this to you concerning you intention to open a Christian Coffee shop.

As your lawyer, I am writing to advice you on the type of business organization you can consider. Knowing the type of ownership you want will prepare you in advance on what to expect. Through this way you will mobilize resources required to help you start your business.

As you venture in your new business, I would like to encourage you to trust God for success.  The scripture says in Jeremiah 29: 11-13 (NIV)

“For I know the plans I have for you, “declares the Lord, ”plans to prosper you and not to harm you, plans to give you hope and a future. Then you will call on me and come and pray to me, and I will listen to you. You will seek me and find me when you seek me with all your heart.”

There are different forms of ownership that I want give some advice.

The first form of business ownership is sole proprietorship.  For this form of ownership, you will be the sole owner of the business. Betty, you will be the one in control of money you generate from your coffee shop.  You will enjoy all the profit.  You will also manage all activities of your business hence you will monitor growth of the business.  Another important aspect of this ownership is that it has few legal requirements (Dlabay, Burrow & Kleindl, 20, p. 108). There is no double taxation as it happens in a corporation. The cost of starting the business is not high for a sole proprietor. However, this form of business has some cons. You will have unlimited liability and your business and personal assets can be claimed by the debtor in case of large debts.  You will also have to suffer all the losses. This should not worry you as most businesses that are sole proprietorships have been successful for many business owners (Boone & Kurtz 2011, p. 146).

The second form of ownership is partnership. For this one, it is difficult to start. Creating partnership is hectic and partners have to sign an agreement that states the roles, expectations and how profits are shared.  This business ownership has more legal requirements than in sole proprietorship.  However it is easy to raise capital as partners will contribute capital required.  There is wide range of expertise therefore management will be easy (Pride et al, 2012, p. 114).

The third form of business ownership is the corporation. Betty, I would like to inform you that starting a corporation is quite expensive. It is time consuming and companies are taxed twice. The company and the owners are two different entities. The company will be taxed and the profits you will receive will also be taxed. However, a company has limited life and limited liability. It is easy to transfer ownership to another person. In case of bankruptcy, debtors cannot claim your personal assets (Bevans 2007, p. 5).

Having this in mind, Betty I would advise you to consider being a sole proprietor.  When you start the business, you file papers to protect your personal assets in case of loss in the business.  for a start, I advise to register your business as sole trader. When it is established, you can consider making partnership and then make the coffee shop a corporation.  After you experience growth, you can consider making your business a franchisor. This means that you can give rights to others to use your business name for a price. For example, in North Carolina, there are 13 active businesses using the name “Gathering Place”.

Finally, as you consider starting a business that is Christian based, do not forget about non Christians. They can add value to your business. Ensure that through your business, you can create good relationships and even make others know Christ. Let others witness that God is in control of your business.  I will leave you with a verse in Matthew 10: 32 that says “Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my father which is in heaven.”

 

Response to K Harps Thread

 

Hello Betty,

I am writing to you concerning your idea of opening up a new business. Your idea of venturing in a Christian coffee house in Belmont, North Carolina is excellent. As a lawyer I would like to advice you on the form of business ownership you can consider. Venturing in business is a challenge and requires patience. You should not give up once you start a business. I would like to encourage you with a scripture in the book of Hebrew 6:12 that says

“That ye be not slothful, but followers of them who through faith and patience inherit the promises”

I would to talk about the different business organization you can consider as you venture in business.

The first one is sole proprietorship. This is a form of ownership that is easy to start. You will be the sole owner of the business.  It is least expensive as legal requirements are minimal.  You will only need to obtain a license that is required by the state or local government (Kubasek, Brennan & Browne, 2012, p. 437).  For this form of organization, you will have control of your business. The most important of all is that you will enjoy all the profits. It is also easy to dissolve your business any time you will feel like.  However, Betty I would like you to consider that this form of ownership has shortcomings. You will suffer all the losses as well as be responsible for all personal liabilities. You will also pay all taxes on all profits.  Sole proprietorship is governed by General Statute of North Carolina Section 66-68.  This statute requires the business owner to have a certificate of registration and is filed.

The second form of organization you may consider is partnership. I have learnt that there are other people interested in forming a partnership with you.  You may think that partnership is best for you since you have potential partners. Betty, I would like to let you know that partnership is made of willing individuals who want to carry out business activities as co-owners.  I advise you to do more research on this form of partnership.  It is easy to start this business when a contract is between two people. Cost is shared therefore not expensive. Management skills are rampant and wide range of customers can be reached. On the other hand each partner has unlimited liability. Their personal assets can be claimed in case of bankruptcy. Each partner is taxed on their share of capital and partnership can be dissolved at any time (Pride et al, 2012, p. 114).

The third option can be Limited Liability Company (LLC).  Betty, as you know, this is the most popular form of business ownership. In this form of ownership, partners can enjoy same limited liability that shareholders in a corporation have but retain the status in a partnership (Kubasek, Brennan & Brown, 2012, p. 469).  In this form of ownership, it is necessary to note that loss is limited. The company can continue operating even after the death of one member. However, there is a long process followed in order to start this form of business.  There are basic steps requires such choosing a state where the company will operate, selecting a name, and delivering articles to the secretary of state. In North Carolina, you will find this in Chapter 57C of the statue that governs LLCs.

Choose a partner who has passion for business. People who can have positive contribution are required. You can consider eliminating Alice who wants an excuse just to be away from home. The other partner you said was Erma. She is a non Christian who only wants profits.  The bible teaches in Amos 3:3 that two people cannot walk together except they are in agreement.  You should consider John as your partner as he is your husband and is not interested in managing or operate your business.

Finally you would consider operating as a franchise. By this you will have to reach an agreement with a franchisor and use their name and trademark.  This increases brand awareness as well as improve corporate image.  Franchise companies offer training therefore it would be easy to succeed in business. However, franchises are expensive and one is charged for using the trademark (Bradach, 1998 p. 31).

I believe you should consider Limited Liability Company as your option. I searched the name you gave me “Gathering Place” and it is registered. You should consider looking for another name for your company.

 

 

Response to J LaFine thread

Hello Barney,

I am writing to you this letter concerning what you have encountered.

As your lawyer I would advise you to have hope, that all shall be well. Whatever belongs to you will not be taken away from you. I would encourage you to trust in God because the battle belongs to him. a scripture in the book of Joshua 10: 25 says;

“Do not be afraid; do not be discouraged. Be strong and courageous. This is what the lord will do to all the enemies you are going to fight.”

In the incidents you have encountered, I have discovered that there are five cases at hand.  I have identified four cases: the first two are in the mountain, the third is in the Carolina beach, and the fourth is about your car.

The first case is concerning the property you jointly bought with your three deceased friends.

Concerning joint tenancy the right of survivorship clause leaves you as the sole owner of the mountain property.  It is also true that joint tenants have equal rights in the asset, and when one dies, ownership is automatically passed to the other owners (Shillings, 1996, p. 51).

Since the law is stated clearly about joint tenancy and ownership of property, then the asset is rightfully yours as long as your friends never sold it before they passed on without your knowledge.

But before you think of the property as yours, let us discuss the second case.

When you arrived to the North Carolina Mountains, there is this Squatter known as Ernest who claimed he had legal rights on the property. Earnest claims to live in this property for 20 years. If what he says is true, then we might have a problem.  North Carolina General Statutes, Article 4, 1-40 gives rights to squatters who have possessed a property for 20 years. It reads;

“No action for the recovery or possession of real property, or the issues and profits thereof, shall be maintained when the person in possession thereof, or defendant in the action, or those under whom he claims, has possessed the property under known and visible lines and boundaries adversely to all other persons for 20 years; and such possessions so held gives a title in fee to the possessor, in such property, against all persons not under disability” (C.C.P., s.23; Code, s. 144; Rev., s. 384; C.S., s. 430.).

It is true that Ernest is the owner of the property. But you should not give up Barney, you can go on with the proceedings and make earnest prove that he owned the property openly.  Do not worry about that, since you still have the title deed. Mean while, let us discuss the third case.

In this case, the town authority wants to posses the coastal property to build a public resort.  The town authority will use the eminent domain to defend their position.  Eminent domain gives the government the right to own a property after compensating the owner with the aim of doing something that will benefit the public at large (Kelo, 2005, p.19). We will go on and object this, but the government will use condemnation proceedings for its defense.  When I say condemnation, it is a legal term that involves a process by which the government acquires ownership of private property for public use over the protest of the owner of the property (Kubasek et al, 2012, p. 380).

The town authorities use the public to defend their case.  The town of Carolina beach which is the defendant must prove that the proposed business will benefit the public.  This is similar to the case of SusetteKelo v. City of London.  The court rule the case in favor of the defendant, the City of London because they presented a successful plan that would lead to economic development of new London. I am sure the court will also rule in favor of the town of Carolina Beach.

The last case is on your stolen Vehicle. I am sure that you will have your car back. You should report to the police that your car has been found.  This will help the police identify the thief and punish him for his actions.  Your car was stolen and sold and we can prove that there was negligence that was exercised by the dealer.  The thief did not have documents for the car when he sold it to the dealer.  The dealer therefore knowingly operated outside a legal transaction.  Kubasek argues that the four steps of conveyance include execution, delivery, acceptance and recording.  The dealer failed in the step of recording.  Recording help identify if there are two deeds that convey the same piece of property.  The owner of the property is the one whose deed was recorded first. You are the owner of the car Barney and no cost will be incurred in getting it back (Kubasek, 2012, p. 382).

In conclusion, I am glad that you have not let your frustrations overwhelm you.  You followed the right path and the court will do its part in all these cases. In exodus 22: 9 the scripture states, “ In all cases of illegal possession of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any other lost property about which somebody says, ‘This is mine,’ both parties are to bring their cases before the judges (NIV).

References

Kubasek, N., Brennan, B., & Browne, M. (2012).The legal environment of business: A critical

thinking approach. 6 ed. Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

North Carolina General Assembly – General Statutes. (n.d.).North Carolina General Assembly –

General Statutes. Retrieved April 18, 2014, from http://www.ncga.state.nc.us/gascripts/statutes/Statutes.asp

Shilling, D. (1996).Joint ownership and elderplanning.Journal of the American Society of CLU &ChFC, 50(6), 51. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/209609002?accountid=12085

SusetteKelo et al., Petitioners, v. City of New London, Connecticut, et al.545 U.S. 469 (2005)

 

 

Response to Intervention

Introduction

This is a multi-tiered approach whose main aim is to service provision as well as interventions to any struggling learners. This approach combines the most critical features of assessment and training to all learners who could be experiencing difficulties in their learning, Melland (as cited in Porter, 2008). It is a consortium intervention program that starts right at the general education. It is usually applicable for all students and has been perceived as the best modality of improving the general performance of all students in the general classroom. Response to Intervention is very crucial intervention and hence recommended for all students in general classroom and for any professional educational environment. This paper is mainly going to focus on Response to Intervention, its value, characteristics, and purpose. It will also assess on how RTI can be used the modification of an educational environment.

Value

The results obtained from the application of the Response to Intervention approach cannot be termed as being magic. As regularly said and understood, it is totally difficult and impossible to solve any problem immediately. This implies that, there has to be time length as well as putting into consideration some aspects in order to ensure that a solution is found for any problem in question. However, based on the RTI framework, the approaches has been very crucial and effective in improving the general performance of all students.

Characteristics

There are four features associated with Response to Intervention and these include the following. Collaborative problem solving among all involved parties, multi-tiered systems of teaching as well as caregiving practices, ongoing and continuous and high quality curriculum.

Collaborative problem solving process

This approach helps teams in making stringent decisions regarding the worth of curriculum. It also focuses on the improvement of in research based practices. In an attempt to improve on support and development, the approach also works on the assessment of the needs of an individual student. Partnered and collaborative strategies between families and program personnel have helped in strengthening and implementing the Response to Intervention program. In early childhood education, the RTI has been highly valued and much emphasis has been laid on families who are also key players in the designing, evaluation, and the final intervention of RTI for their respective youngsters (Whitten, Esteves & Woodrow, 2009).

Multi-tiered systems of teaching as well as caregiving practices

These are research-validated approaches whereby both caregiving as well as training practices are used both within and across tiers with the main aim of responding to the diverse needs exhibited by both individual and groups of young children. In a Response to Intervention program, the aggregate number of tier will vary. However, the concept is that the bottom tier is the one that carries the overall content and the basics of caregiving and training practices considered important for every young children. The subsequent tier is the one that carries the caregiving and training practices that are considered fit for children who may benefit from more support. The important characteristic in this kind of approach is that the particular and individual child’s needs are matched alongside a particular tier. The matching support implies that different youngsters will receive different levels of instructions or trainings for different projected outcomes. For instance, a toddler will be offered with tier 1 that aims at caregiving support on developmental language skills while at the same time receive tier 3 that is essential for child walking support. Under this approach, if a youngster is receiving a higher tier support that relates to a specific outcome area while at the same time receiving a program monitoring data, it then implies that, that particular youngster is making a positive advancement and adequate growth towards that specific outcome (Kovaleski, 2013).  However, it is worth noting that despite the level of support or tier, it is always important the standards that relate to effective caregiving and teaching practices as it may be recommended.

Ongoing and continuous progress monitoring approach

This approach features several terms that have been very appropriate in describing the nature of RTI. Assessment is widely used in this case to refer to the practice of correcting data in order to enable an individual in making critical decisions. Such decisions will include judgments on the status of an individual child and further assessment of a child in relation to his/her peers. This approach also comprise of the universal screening that helps the teams in the assessment of whether a particular youngster is ‘falling behind’ and whether that particular child may require any additional support services. The instruments in used under the screening approach are very vital in the assessment of a child’s performance in relation to a set benchmark. There is the progressive monitoring, which is used to describe the logical and continuous assessment of informing decisions as to whether youngsters subjected to research-based instruction are positively responding to the instruction as required.

High quality curriculum for all children

Under the context of Return to Intervention, the term curriculum has been widely used to refer to the planning and assessment of different children. it is used to refer to the different determinations made on different children in order to assess individual children’s needs and to what level or degrees (Pianta, 2012). A high quality curriculum as found in RTI helps in the critical assessment and comprehensive analysis of learning outcomes and as such serves as a base guidance of what instruction or training practices to be used in order to achieve improved outcomes.

Purpose of RTI

The main importance of RTI is that it has been used as an identification method of those children with learning disabilities. It has also been used as a transformation program in the way different students are educated. Its framework model has been used in the a remedy of creating well integrated decisions of instruction as well as intervention programs essential in the improvement of the general achievement of children with learning disabilities. Regardless of whether students have a disability, they can always the support they require soon as they exhibit difficulties in their learning. Studies also show that it is possible to dramatically change or completely bring to an end the field of learning disabilities (Searle, 2010).

Educational environment to modify

In order to have a good understanding of the subject matter that is taught in school, there is a dire need to have exhibit proficient reading. In modern times, there has been more and more emphasis on education and as such there is increased number of both children and adults who require to be helped in reading, writing, and the general application of grammar. Some people have been experiencing learning difficulties associated with dyslexia problems. People experiencing dyslexia problems, whether children or adults, are likely to suffer from mental abuse as they feel segregated and discriminated.

As above mentioned, this is not only an observable phenomenon among the children but also evident among adults. Students with Dyslexia are likely to suffer from discrimination and depression in the adult schools and are likely to be abused by their colleague students (Swarbrick & Marshall, 2008). As such there is a need to intervene and come up with strategies that would help change the general school environment. Return to Intervention is not only applicable to junior students but can also serve a great role among senior students experiencing learning difficulties. It is true that people with dyslexia need one-on-one help and as such Return to Intervention will be of importance as it will help in determining and setting up the best training and intervention practices that will help realize great results. Just like in junior classes, RIT will help senior school teachers in doing an in depth assessment on the students. They will thus be able to know what form of training and intervention programs to employ in order to improve on the general performance of the students.

Conclusion

Based on the above discussion it is evident that RTI is an essential tool in addressing issues related to students with learning disabilities. People with different learning disabilities exhibit different forms of challenges and as such there is a need for teachers to put in place mechanisms that will appropriately address such challenges. RTI has been adopted as the best mechanism as it does not only help in identifying the learning difficulties but also in changing the whole teaching system of the teachers. It has also been appropriate and effective in responding to learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, among senior students in high schools.

References

Kovaleski, J. F. (2013). The RTI approach to evaluating learning disabilities.

Pianta, R. C. (2012). Handbook of early childhood education. New York: Guilford Publications.

Porter, L. J. (2008). A Case Study of the Implementation of Response to Intervention in an Elementary School. Michigan: ProQuest.

Searle, M. (2010). What every school leader needs to know about RTI. Alexandria, Va: ASCD.

Swarbrick, J., & Marshall, A. (2008). The Everything Parent’s Guide to Children with Dyslexia: All You Need to Ensure Your Child’s Success. Avon: Adams Media.

Whitten, E., Esteves, K. J., & Woodrow, A. (2009). RTI success: Proven tools and strategies for schools and classrooms. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit Pub.