Can Moral Testimony Result in Moral Knowledge?

Can Moral Testimony Result in Moral Knowledge?

Often, people trust one another as sources of information about phenomena occurring around them, and depend heavily on friends, acquaintances, or even complete strangers for responses to their questions in life. What is the best solution for this problem? Does this restaurant provide the best meals? These questions of philosophy have been at the heart of philosophical debate throughout history, and boil down to the question: can moral philosophy result in moral knowledge? In other words, is it reasonable to acquire one’s beliefs on the testimonies offered by others? Many philosophers have attempted to provide answers to this question linking moral testimony and moral knowledge have offered contradictory responses to this pertinent philosophical question. In this paper, I explore the positions presented by both sides of the debate, and argue that the pessimist view that moral testimony cannot result in moral knowledge holds due to its strong arguments.

Among many scholars of philosophy, there is a contra-argument existing between optimists and pessimists of moral testimony that moral testimony can or cannot lead to moral knowledge. Pessimists of moral testimony often believe that many reasons exist against the legitimacy of forming moral knowledge on the moral testimony offered by others, though they do not consider moral testimony as entirely valueless, as it may be applicable in certain situations such children’s learning, and by adults on non-moral issues upon which they can formulate their moral perspectives. In this sense, it is considered legitimate to ask others of their advice on moral issues and to take their response seriously. At, maturity, according to pessimists, adults should not rely on moral testimony as their source of knowledge.

Conversely, optimists of moral testimony believe that there is no dissimilarity between trusting moral testimony and trusting non-moral factual issues. According to optimists, one can acquire moral or non-moral knowledge by trusting moral testimony. As such there are no reasons that should prevent one from obtaining knowledge from moral testimony. But this is not to say that one should always trust moral testimony as a source of moral knowledge, especially when the source of such moral testimony may be considered as untrustworthy, inexperienced, and unreliable as well as being unknowledgeable about a matter of fact.  This optimistic view is explored by Hopkins (2007). However, Hopkins also appreciates the role of moral testimony and argues that the most appropriate explanation although moral testimony potentially results in knowledge, there are moral and non-moral reasons why we should not use it. Generally, it is accepted that a great deal of what forms peoples’ beliefs is based on the testimony of others, with many explanations offered in philosophical research concerning the validity of obtaining knowledge in this manner, though little has been mentioned as to whether moral testimony can be relied upon as a valid source of moral knowledge (Hopkins 2007).

According to Hopkins (2007), one of the staunch optimists, moral testimony does not create moral knowledge, but passes it on, and if a given fact can be known, it can be passed on to another person through the use of testimony. However, such optimism does automatically imply that we can or should always believe in another person’s moral testimony; that would amount to gullibility which is undesirable in moral matters as is the case of amoral matters. The reason for this is the potential interlocutor might be mistaken or bear intention to mislead us, hence the need to guard against these potential infelicities. However, there is no typological difference existing between moral and non-moral issues as it concerns taking testimony, and therefore testimony is a valid source of moral belief, a position rejected by those with a pessimistic position.

There several reasons why moral testimony is considered to not be able to create moral result in moral knowledge. First, as the pessimist argue, there no such thing as moral knowledge. Testimony is considered as a mechanism of learning from others, and having the knowledge of what they know, but as to whether is hands on moral knowledge is out of the question, yet there is apparently no moral knowledge to pass on, as morality is an issue of opinion and feelings which express sentiments and not knowledge (Hopkins 2007: p. 615). Moreover, moral assertions cannot be demarcated into true or false. In this light, moral testimony cannot be relied upon as a transmitter of moral knowledge. In support of this pessimist view, Hopkins argues that there can never be nay testimony on moral matters. However, this view has been criticized for its implicit ignorance of the role of scrutiny and deliberation on matters related moral questions.

Second, pessimists argue that moral knowledge is the wrong type of knowledge. This account accepts the existence of moral knowledge, rather it disputes whether it is the right kind that leads to some kind of action; it is considered as “knowledge-how rather than knowledge-that” (Hopkins 2007: p. 617). The argument is that knowledge–how cannot be passed on through moral testimony, and moral testimony cannot be a platform through which moral knowledge gets passed on. Although one learns the know-how from others who already possess it, through their testimony, such testimony can only result in belief, and not moral knowledge. Conversely, this view fails to completely achieve its intended effect, by ignoring the role of the acquired belief in its claim of non-propositional knowledge-how (Hopkins 2007: p. 619). In other words, the so-called knowledge-how cannot be considered as being completely free of belief, and any beliefs acquired are warranted.

A third argument offered by the pessimists is that concerning moral disagreements and one’s confidence in their testimonial interlocutor. Testimonial knowledge depends on reliable informants for it to hold (Hopkins 2007: p. 620). Nonetheless, morality lacks those who can be considered reliable informants, given that there are too many incongruities on moral matters for one to consider their informant as being reliable. The differences of perspectives exist because of distortion of judgment through interest, and its prevalence undermines the confidence would have on the reliance on informants of moral matters. Consequently, testimony obtained from such informants cannot be regarded as legitimate. In other words testimony cannot create legitimate moral knowledge. However, the optimists, in opposition to this argument, argue that this account overplays the seriousness of such moral disagreement being discussed, and is not sufficient enough to discredit moral testimony in its creation of moral knowledge (Hopkins 2007: p. 621).

Pessimists have also questioned the importance of moral matters. Generally, depending on the subject matter, there is need to be accurate about its factual issues. How important accuracy of the topic is impacts what is considered legitimate source of belief, and more important topics will require self-thought in order to minimize potential risk of error (Hopkins 2007: p. 621). Most non-moral matters that are not particularly important, learning them from testimony may be considered legitimate. On the other hand, moral matters are normally considered adequately important to demand self-thought.

There many reasons suggested in philosophical debate concerning why one may consider moral knowledge acquired through moral testimony as legitimate (Hilson 2009: 96). For those who believe that moral testimony can lead to moral knowledge, it does not rigidly imply that moral testimony is always the source of moral knowledge, but it points to the fact that under certain circumstances, moral testimony may be relied upon as the justification of knowledge.  The first reason, this could result from our concern regarding our ability to undertake fair judgment of a moral issue without bias. Another reason is that there are people who are better equipped than others to make specific kinds of moral judgments. For instance, if you to ask someone why they believe in a given proposition. If they believe it is windy, it is reasonable to accept their answer that somebody else told them. If they believe that smoking cigarette is wrong, we ought not to accept, as final, an answer that somebody else told them, but we would interested in them providing further reasons in order to believe their claim rather than a different claim. Under such situations, it means that moral engagement, importantly, involves a lot of exchanges between reasons and arguments. As such, and in accordance with (Hilson 2009: 98)’s perspective, people can and should try to find advice on moral matters, but they should not rely wholly on the judgments of other people.

In conclusion, it is clear that by majority, those who take the position that moral testimony cannot result in moral knowledge have offered convincing arguments as support for their claims (Hislon 2009). For those belonging to this school of thought, one may not have moral knowledge on a matter of fact even if their belief turns out be accurate. According to Hopkins (2007), in order to justifiably believe in a moral testimonial proposition, one must understand the underlying morals reasons and assumptions.

Works Cited

The Signs of Ownership of Cloud Computing

The Signs of Ownership of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing has altered the manner in which information storage in conducted in a connected world. Cloud computing refers to the storage and access of large chunks of data and programs over the Internet, as opposed to relying on local computer storage devices such as one’s computer hard drive. Data and information ownership has now become a tenuous thing to realize. Data privacy and personal privacy have been altered by the widespread use of cloud computing technologies in significant ways. In this paper, an exploration of the impact of cloud computing in terms of signs ownership in a globalized world is conducted. Evidentially, cloud computing technology has become a major social spectacle used by people on their daily interactions. However, as is the case with any important social phenomenon, cloud computing has brought a number issues in everyday communications that have substantial limiting effect on its widespread adoption, including information ownership and privacy.

The signs of ownership within information clouds relates to the potential loss of control over one’s own data. In a connected world that is increasingly becoming dependent on clouds, information normally gets stored on a computer owned by someone else, or the cloud provider. In most cases, the remote cloud servers are owned by organizations or individuals other than the cloud user (T Ograph and Richard 2008, Dilon et al 2010). Moreover, the interests of the cloud user and server owner may differ with regard to the desire to maintain the privacy of personal data, wherein the users seeks personal data privacy, on the one hand, while the owner, on the other hand, is interested in taking advantage of the data for personal and business motives. This leads this leads to a host of other issues related to the use of cloud computing technology; the use of cloud computing technology has led to increased cost-related and information ownership concerns in the modern computing arena.

Privacy is major issue when it comes to cloud computing. The increased adoption and use of cloud-based computing services such as Google Docs and Gmail has altered discussions about concerns of the clouds (Haghighat et al 2015, Ryan 2011).  Cloud computing technology puts the cloud service provider in a privileged position in which as the user base expands the owners is exposed to huge chunks of all kinds of data that is easily accessible. This ease of access has the greater risk of data being disclosed within the clouds, whether such disclosure is accidental or deliberate. The exponents of privacy have been critical of cloud computing technology model for giving data hosting companies the ease of controlling, and consequently monitoring at will, interactions and communication occurring between the host company and the end user of the cloud service, as well as ability to access user data without or without user permissions. For example, the recent incidence such as the secret use of personal data by the NSA program, in collaboration with technology companies such as Verizon and AT&T, in which over ten million phone calls between American nationals were recorded, only serves to increase cloud privacy concerns and uncertainties. The concerns arise out the real and perceived greater powers it provides to telecommunication firms to monitor cloud user data (T Ograph and Richard 2008, Dilon et al 2010). Furthermore, a company providing cloud based services can confound data privacy due to the extent of widespread virtualization, or the use of virtual machines, as well as the cloud computing storage used in the implementation of the cloud service.

Also, cloud service provider operations, as well as customer or tenant data, may not remain on the same computing system, in the same cloud data center, or within the same cloud service provider’s cloud.  Significantly, this can raise legal concerns over data jurisdiction. Despite tremendous efforts to harmonize the cloud computing legal environment, cloud service providers such as the giant Amazon still provide cloud-based services to major segments of the connected global market, primarily the American and European markets through the deployment of local infrastructure and enabling customers to select their regions of availability (T Ograph and Richard 2008, Dilon et al 2010). In this way, cloud technologies pose privacy concerns due to the fact that the cloud service providers have access to the data stored on the cloud at any given time. Such unwarranted and unlimited access to user data can lead to accidental or deliberate alteration, or even deletion of personal data and information. Importantly, this leads to an escalation of user concerns as the cloud service platform administrators employed by the service companies can be compromised and potentially undertake the unwanted disclosure of private information on the public clouds.

Cloud computing technology has also impacted information sharing in a connected world. In particular, information sharing with no warrant is an issue that has raised public concerns regarding the use of cloud based virtual technologies. Apparently, many cloud service providers are able to share personal information with third parties, if necessary, for the realization of law and order issues, even without considering the need for a warrant. Notably, this cloud reality is acceptably stipulated in their cloud policies, which prospective users must sign up to before they can be allowed access to the given cloud services. Of course, in practice, there are certain life-endangering circumstances in which there is no time to wait for the public authorities and security agencies to respond or issue a warrant of data access. Under such circumstances, many cloud service providers may are likely to share user information with the security authorities without a warrant (Kurtz and Russell 2010).

However, cloud technology service providers have also made tremendous efforts to deal with the problems of privacy through a number of innovative solutions. Such solutions to cloud privacy include cloud policy and legislations, as well as giving end users the ability to choose how their data is stored within the cloud framework. The cloud service firms is required to provide clear relevant policies describing how user data will be accessed and utilized. Moreover, cloud services provider have made efforts to encrypt user data in order to limit authorized access, and have also relied upon integrity protection techniques that ensure that data only flows to its required destination without modification in transit.

Cloud computing security is another issue of concern that affects information ownership within the clouds. Information security generally desirable within the clouds, and implies the protection of data against internal and external threats. Security is an important aspect of the cloud computing architecture (Haghighat et al 2015, Ryan 2011). The introduction of cloud computing has led to the modification or alteration of the traditional models of computing security in terms of their effectiveness and efficiency in the context of the cloud system. Cloud security is particularly important in dealing with sensitive data access, data privacy, information segregation, accountability, data recovery, malicious access from within the provider firms. Although cloud computing creates numerous opportunities and benefits for its users, criminals continuously attempt to devise ways to exploit cloud system vulnerabilities, thereby escalating security risks associated with data security compromise data breach. Personal data breach is a major concern in cloud computing as it affects information ownership rights (Kurtz and Russell 2010). Furthermore, a comprised cloud server could impose significant harm on cloud users and providers. Information ownership gets comprised particularly when such significant amount of information get stolen from within the cloud system, including social security data, credit card numbers, as well as personal messages (Haghighat et al 2015, Ryan 2011). Although regulations exist that might require companies to notify individuals of breaches on their data, such users are likely to be worried about potential fraud and personal identity theft. Cloud computing has also been cited for potential user abuse issues. As is the case with privately purchased computing hardware, cloud customers can buy cloud based services for nefarious reasons, including password cracking and launching of costly attacks using the purchased cloud services (Kurtz and Russell 2010).

Cloud computing has also altered the way consumer end storage is conducted in a connected world. The widespread use of cloud technologies has led to a reduction in the individual and organizational demand for high storage-capacity consumer-end devices, as a result of the development of innovatively cheaper low storage computing devices, which are able to stream online content with enhanced ease through the cloud. In a wired world, however, while unregulated usage of the cloud infrastructure is beneficial to the cloud technology provider giants such Amazon, the anonymity of the business costing of user consumption makes it difficult to completely evaluate its potential cost benefits (Haghighat et al 2015, Ryan 2011).

Softer licensing is another ownership issue that affects the use of cloud computing. Many cloud service companies provide variety of software solutions such as software provided on premise, usually hosted by third-party firms, or offered through hybrid-private cloud arrangement (Kurtz and Russell 2010). For cloud users, the numerous licenses brings about a host of challenges, including the need to be aware of the relevant licensing limitations or restrictions as well as to manage the overabundance of software licensing options that the cloud service system entails. However, some companies have recognized these problems and are now allowing certain categories of users to introduce own software on to the cloud service platforms provided they certain specifications and have the requisite silencing.

Despite its numerous benefits, cloud computing technologies have been blamed for their potential monopolization and privatization effect on the information cyberspace. Some scholars point that even though cloud computing technology improves content accessibility, this access is progressively grounded in the virtual cloud systems that is phenomenally monopolistically privatized as it provides the service (Kurtz and Russell 2010). As such, cloud access which may be mediated via efforts of a handful of firms, and ensures an increasing privatization of the global cyberspace. Furthermore, a response by the exponents of cloud computing technology that such phenomenal monopolization and privatization of the cloud is the result of natural evolution of the Internet, argument is offered that such monopolization has the negative effect of setting cloud service pricing at will, while at the same time undertaking massive filtering of software services offered in order to realize its universalization based on ideological and commercial interests (Haghighat et al 2015, Ryan 2011).

Works Cited

The Anorexic Adolescent: Challenges to Nursing Care

The Anorexic Adolescent: Challenges to Nursing Care

1. Introduction

1.1 Research background and problem statement

Anorexia nervosa is a serious health problem affecting a significant proportion of the entire global adolescent population, yet majority of previous research is heavily focused on the study of the condition among adult women. Consequently, the disorder remains ill understood among this younger age group. A surfeit of studies have previously been conducted to identify the risks factors and causes of anorexia nervosa, as well as the challenges facing nursing practitioners in their day-to-day attempt to offer nursing serving to patients suffering from the disorder. With respect to causes, the findings from these previous studies generally point to an array of causal factors including low self-concept as well as poor body image. Such studies have also highlighted numerous challenges nursing professionals face when giving care to anorexic patients associated with anorexia nervosa therapy, patient weight restoration and the role of the family in the care process.  This paper presents research proposal for a study to explore the challenges facing nursing caregivers dealing adolescent patients suffering from the incidence of anorexia nervosa. The study will also explore the unique issues associated with this disorder among adolescent populations.

Anorexia nervosa (AN) refers to a psychological disorder, characterized by an obsessive craving to undergo weight loss by refusing to eat (Le Grange et al, 2010; Soanes & Stevenson, 2008). Anorexia nervosa is a major health problem affecting roughly 10 cases per 100,000 of the total global female population on a per annum basis, with approximately 0.5 reported in males (Fairburn & Harrison, 2003; DoHC, 2006).  With roughly 90 percent of anorexic patients being females, the prevalence of this eating illness is highest in adolescents and young adult populations (Chan & Ma, 2002; Le Grange, 2005; Gilbert, Shaw & Notar, 2000). Anorexia nervosa is one of the mainstream psychiatric disorders, whose diagnostic criteria includes an individual’s refusal and inability to maintain what is medically considered as normal body weight for their age and physical height, with the individual having a body weight that is 85 percent of what is normally expected. Typically, anorexia nervosa occurs between the adolescent ages of 14-18. Mortality rate of AN in chronic patients is reported at 20 percent (DoHC, 2006. The studies link this high mortality rate to potential denial among anorexic populations, leading to delayed clinical presentation. Furthermore, patients suffering anorexia nervosa are more likely to reject diagnosis, tend to minimize the implications of the disorder, and are prone to refuse prescribed treatment (Couturier & Lock, 2006). Consequently, treatment and care provision becomes difficult (DoHC, 2006). Moreover, for a significant proportions of anorexic patients, body thinness can be linked to body image and self-worth (Paterson et al., 2007). As a consequence, anorexic patients can perceive treatment as a fight for control develop resistance to care (Halvorsen & Heyerdohl, 2007). As such, caring for anorexic patients can be a challenge task for nursing staff.

Presently, studies point to a growing incidence of weight loss culture, especially among adolescent populations, and anorexia nervosa is increasingly becoming a major health problem facing general nursing practice and caregiving (Le Grange et al, 2012; King & Turner, 2000). Although there are many previous studies focusing on the topic of anorexia nervosa, limited research has been conducted that specifically address the difficulties facing nursing staff when performing care for the anorexic adolescent population. Consequently, the purpose of the proposed study will be to explore the different challenges facing nursing care staff providing acre to adolescent suffering from the disorder of anorexia nervosa.


1.2 Purpose of Study

The purpose of the proposed study will be to explore the challenges facing nursing practice and staff when performing nursing care for adolescents suffering from the disorder of anorexia nervosa.

1.4 Definitions

Adolescent: The term refers to the stage of development from childhood into adulthood. In the study, the considered adolescent age bracket is between 14-18 years.

Anorexia nervosa: This term refers to an eating disorder whereby an individual involuntarily refuses food ingestion, and a normal weight individual indulges in dieting thereby becoming significantly underweight, yet still psychically feeling fat as he/she continues to starve.

1.5 Research questions

The proposed study seeks to answer the following question:

  • What are the main challenges facing nursing staff caring for anorexic adolescents
  • What is the importance of family-centered approach to diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa?
  • What is the status of therapeutic relationship between anorectic adolescents and nursing care givers

2. Theoretical Framework

This study will be based on a number of theoretical multifactorial relative theories. The causes of anorexia disorder among adolescents can be understood from a variety of theoretical frameworks. Within the scientific community, it is generally agreed that the condition is caused through an amalgamation of biological, sociocultural, as well as psychological-psychical influences. There is also the perspective that factors causing anorexia nervosa are no psychical with no clear-cut empirical evidence pointing to the exact pathogenesis of the illness. However, scientists are generally in consensus that the role of the family, especially the mother, is significantly linked to the development and progression of anorexia nervosa in adolescents, especially young girls (Bessenoff & Del Priore, 2007).

According to psychic theory, the psychic factors linked to the occurrence of the disorder include: adolescence crisis as well as new experiences; desire to raise only children as considered as ‘normal’ leading to the hiding childhood behaviors that only appear during bodily changes that occur at adolescent age; as well as the predominant psychological mechanism which completely controls the body in a sustained effort to maintain significant level of dominance over self (McClelland & Crisp, 2001).

Psychosocial theories focus on social and psychological mechanisms. According to this theoretical perspective, anorexia nervosa is seen as a reaction to forces and demands of adolescent age for increased independence and more social and sexual activity (McClelland & Crisp, 2001).. In a sense, anorexic patients, especially during adolescence, are more likely to replace normal adolescent desires and quests with concern of food as well as control of their body weight.  Moreover, during this growth phase, troubled familial relationships cause anorectic children in such families to draw attention. Furthermore, patient family history are also linked to anorexia nervosa in cases associated with depression, alcoholism as well as eating disorders (McClelland & Crisp, 2001).

3. Literature Review

Previous studies on anorexia nervosa have also pointed to some of the potential challenges facing nursing care staff, generally categorized into therapeutic relationship, family centered care and weight restoration.       With respect to therapeutic relationship, patients experiencing anorexia nervosa do not consider themselves be entitled to emotional expression (Fox, 2009), and perceive emotions as bad or wrong, consequently evoking feelings of shame and fear. Generally, eating disorders, including anorexia nervosa, can be used as a tool or coping mechanism for emotional blockade, with food restrictions used to control and deal with individual’s feelings of painful emotional states (Harrison et al., 2009). Patients suffering from anorexia nervosa tend to find difficult to express themselves and often show compulsion, striving for perfectionist behavior (Nisson et al. 2007), and have been described as conflict avoiders who tend to turn conflict towards themselves (Le Grange, 2010;  Fassino et al., 2001). Consequently, an anorexic disorder can result from an attempt to control anger in a way that does not require its communication (Fox, 2009). As a result, nursing staff can find it difficult to engage with patients suffering from anorexic condition, who appear to lack emotional expression. As such, it can be difficult and challenging for nurses to build a therapeutic relationship with anorexic patients, it forms a critical component of the treatment procedure. Various studies suggest the significance of therapeutic relationship building based on trust, reliability and compassion, and is more likely to improve continuity of patient care, whereas untrustworthy and dishonest patients could make it difficult for nursing staff to build that relationship for provision of appropriate and effective care (Colton & Pistron, 2004). Evidence from these previous literature suggest that building therapeutic relationship is critical in providing care to anorexia nervosa patients. Nevertheless, as a result of control struggles, emotional avoidance, and dishonest patient behavior, nursing staff are likely to find it challenging to remain nonjudgmental and establish therapeutic rapport with patients (Colton & Pistron, 2004; King &Turner, 2000).

Weight restoration amongst anorexic adolescents has also been highlighted as one of the major challenges facing nursing care practitioners. Symptoms of intense fears of eating and weight gain have been linked to the condition of anorexia nervosa, and anorexic patients tend to develop resistance against treatment commencement, and are more likely to perceive the condition as part of their identity as well as a fight for control, leading to poor patient treatment compliance and difficulties with treatment provision (Halvorsen & Heyerdohl, 2007). This finding is supported by a number of qualitative and quantitative studies on the link between body weight, body image, and self-esteem, with anorexia nervosa: Karpowicz et al (2009), and Van Ommen’s et al (2009).  Generally, as a consequence of a fear of gaining weight, the anorexic patient is likely to resist, or fail to comply with prescribed treatment (Patel et al., 2003). Consequently, nursing staff find it challenging to commence and subsequently maintain the anorexic patient’s weight restoration, making the weight restoration not only difficult but also problematic in terms of setting expected weight targets. According to Golden et al. (2008), because adolescents are stiff experiencing growth, it is preferable that nurses work with weight range rather than a fixed weight target when providing anorexic health care related to weight restoration.

Another challenge reported in previous studies concerns the need for nursing staff to provide family-centered care for anorexic patients. From the start of the treatment procedure, the perception of anorexia nervosa as individual problem should be altered and the problem be seen as a family issue that needs active family involvement as well as shared therapeutic efforts. In practice, nevertheless, implementing family-centered approach to caregiving for anorexic patients, including adolescents, is a major challenge to nursing staff. Families lack sufficient education on anorexia nervosa and family based conflicts may result from the impact of the disorder on familial relationships. Therefore, nurses ought to consider incorporating joint family efforts to address potential family conflicts associated with the disorder, as a response to dysfunctional familial attitudes towards the promotion of understanding of divergent perspectives (Ma, 2008). Education is fundamental to provision of family-centered care, as empirically evidenced from a plethora of previous literature (Rhonda, 2013, Turrell et al, 2005; Carlton & Pyle, 2007). Furthermore, continuous family participation in the anorexic patient care process import, especially for adolescent patients living with or under the control of their family (Patel et al, 2003). Thus, efforts should be made towards incorporation of education, open discussion conflict resolution, as well as family empowerment in order to develop shared efforts in combating anorexia nervosa.

4. Methodology

This section describes the proposed methodological procedure to use when conducting this study. It describes various elements of the proposed research including the research design, a review of the research questions, the instruments to be utilized in the study in order to establish responses to the study question, data collection as well as data analysis.

A literature review will be conducted in order to gather substantive secondary data. This will be done through an online search of major databases with journal articles with research studies focusing on the selected topic as it relates to nursing care literature. The major nursing and health information databases target for the search include PsycArticles, PubMed, and PsycInfo. Articles will be gathered for the period ranging from 1997 to 2015. Both qualitative and quantitative literature sources will be used in both the literature review and final analysis.

Study type and design

The proposed study will be based on a mixed of qualitative and the evaluative approach of the whereby questionnaires will be administered for analysis.

Proposed method and sample participants and sample size

A sample of 80 adolescent girls, aged between 14 – 18 years, and suffering from anorexia nervosa will be requested to complete questionnaires at one or more visits for clinical assessment regardless of the duration of their condition. Sample will be drawn from adolescent girls who provide informed consent and their parents. A control sample will also be recruited in order to determine differences between clinical and nonclinical diagnosis of anorectic patients in respect of self-concept. A sample of nursing staff will also be administered with a separate questionnaire to establish the challenges faced when administering care to anorexic adolescent patients.

Sampling method and data collection method

The sampling technique of the proposed study will be non-probability convenience sampling criteria. As its study instruments, the study will administer questionnaires related to the topic of anorexia. The questions will have different questions addressed to the adolescent participants and those administered to the nursing staff.

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

The study will include adolescent girls falling within the age range of 14-18 years who know English, are present at the time of data collection, and are willing to participate in the process. The study will also involve the input of nursing staff who are willing to participate. As its exclusive criteria, the study will not engage girls below and above the sample age range, as well those who meet the criteria but are unwilling to participate in the process.


Ethical consideration

Permission to conduct this study will be obtained from the relevant authorities at the university administration level. Besides informed consent of those engaged in the research process will be sought. Confidentiality and privacy of information acquired will be maintained.

5. Data Analysis

Data collected from the proposed study will be analyzed qualitatively. Responses from the participants will be tallied for analysis for each of the participants included in the sample of expert panel, and responses on the questions will be categorized into groups including mental health, medical and diet, as well as patient family. The information generated from the studied groups will be examined in order to confirm or establish potential contradictions from the reviewed literature, and differences among nursing staff regarding patient to the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment challenges associated with anorexic adolescents. Besides, the data obtained will be summarized in order to provide conclusive answers to the research questions raised in the introductory section.

6. Conclusion

Anorexia nervosa is one of the fastest growing chronic disorder among adolescent populations across a range of socioeconomic and ethnic groups (Gowers & Weetman, 2000). As the incidence of the disorder continues to increase, nursing care staff are faced with increasing challenges regarding effective ways to provide care and therapy to anorexic patients. Across the nursing practice, efforts to address the emerging challenges from the incidence of anorexia nervosa adolescent are limited by reliance on previous research data tackling the problem amongst adult anorexic patient populations.

It is generally known that anorexic patients can be a source of challenge to nursing care staff as they perform their caregiving roles. Through difficulties in building and maintaining a therapeutic relationship, patient resistance to weight restoration, incorporation of the family into the caregiving and conflict resolution model, treatment provision can be problematic. The proposed study seeks to redress the gaps and limitations of previous research by analyzing the complex links between anorexia nervosa and the challenges facing nursing staff in giving care to anorexic patients. The findings and results of this study will be applicable in nursing practice and will inform clinical diagnosis, therapy, as well as care quality assurance, and will have significant impact on clinical assessment and, treatment and caregiving for adolescent patients suffering from anorexia nervosa, by providing new as well as more descriptive information about the cause of anorexia nervosa and the challenges nursing staff when providing care to adolescent patients with the disorder and how they can be approached in family-care therapeutic models (Rhonda et al, 2013). In this way, the study will be significant in terms of providing research-based recommendations on ways to address the highlighted challenges in nursing practice, including the need for widespread nurse education to overcome challenges associated with anorexic patient for successful caregiving.


Do crime shows make better criminals? In terms of learning how to hide evidence and giving them ideas to do certain things. Can bring up different crime shows.  Make sure not too much (obvious) research is done. Make sure whichever side of the argument you’re on is evident throughout the entire essay. (whichever side you can argue better) Look up CSI Effect maybe? Bring up counterargument. Make it have voice throughout.

Do crime shows make better criminals?

In terms of learning how to hide evidence and giving them ideas to do certain things. Can bring up different crime shows.  Make sure not too much (obvious) research is done. Make sure whichever side of the argument you’re on is evident throughout the entire essay. (whichever side you can argue better) Look up CSI Effect maybe? Bring up counterargument. Make it have voice throughout.


Argument Essay –

Must have an original and creative title – brief, relevant, catchy

  1. Hook – write something question as hook (or attention-grabbing) in opening sentence so the reading NEEDS to keep on reading – but don’t necessarily ask a question

(e.g.- “my mother died yesterday…. Or was it the day before yesterday.” – Reader will wonder why the author doesn’t remember when his mom died.

  1. Thesis – Must have a gripping thesis statement in the last sentence of the first paragraph

The thesis must answer: What you are for/against and why you are for or against it?

No three-part thesis

  1. Conclusion– Must be a dramatic memorable imagine – like a movie “drop the mic” type of ending

Do not repeat all of the key points you said in the paragraphs beforehand. Make it new/fresh

Cannot be boring – Must have style

  1. Research – No research at all (no numbers/statistics) unless it is common knowledge or you had learned about it before
  2. Voice – Don’t speak formally- give the essay a voice (everyday voice) but make sure grammar is correct

Don’t use many transition words

  1. Paragraph/Font– Three pages. Double Spaced. Size 12 font/any font that matches the voice of the essay as long as it is legible
  2. Format– Don’t have to follow five paragraph essay structure

Can be more than five-paragraphs


Cannot be too broad

Can add opinion if it backs up what I’m stating

Follow format

Must address counterargument at some point in the essay

Losing faith in the unifying force of civic nationalism, conservative critics of the multicultural policy deemed it as leading towards `cleaving’ of Australian society fostered by transnational identities formation (James 2006) and ultimately tribalism (Blainey cited in Dunn 2005). Hence, at the dawn of the 21st century, Australian policy makers have welcomed the return of integration to policy rhetoric (Jakubowicz 2008). Under what sorts of circumstances may ethnic belonging and civic-national belonging come into conflict consequently undermining the unifying force of civic nationalism?

Losing faith in the unifying force of civic nationalism, conservative critics of the multicultural policy deemed it as leading towards `cleaving’ of Australian society fostered by transnational identities formation (James 2006) and ultimately tribalism (Blainey cited in Dunn 2005). Hence, at the dawn of the 21st century, Australian policy makers have welcomed the return of integration to policy rhetoric (Jakubowicz 2008). Under what sorts of circumstances may ethnic belonging and civic-national belonging come into conflict consequently undermining the unifying force of civic nationalism?

Under what sorts of circumstances may ethnic belonging and civic-national belonging come into conflict consequently undermining the unifying force of civic nationalism?

What have been the three most significant insights for you in this class? Has anything shifted for you in your relationship with yourself, others, community, and the world? Explain Based on the Zen and the Art of a Living questions you choose to answer and your reflections on the course, would you change anything or add anything to your purpose statement you created for your mid-term? What will you need next (from school, your friends, support organizations, etc.) to move forward with your next goals in life? And how will you take care of yourself and nurture your own core values in this next phase of your journey?

Choose at least 5 questions from the Zen and the Art of Making a Living worksheets and write your final paper about your values and goals in life based on these questions. Do not choose just the first 5 questions: select from throughout the list. A short paragraph for each question (2 or more sentences) is sufficient. 2) In addition, reflect back on your journals, my hero assignment, and essay about the initiative and respond to these final reflection questions: What have been the three most significant insights for you in this class? Has anything shifted for you in your relationship with yourself, others, community, and the world? Explain Based on the Zen and the Art of a Living questions you choose to answer and your reflections on the course, would you change anything or add anything to your purpose statement you created for your mid-term? What will you need next (from school, your friends, support organizations, etc.) to move forward with your next goals in life? And how will you take care of yourself and nurture your own core values in this next phase of your journey? Choose 5 questions from the Zen and the Art of Making a Living worksheets: Your vision for the world, nation, or community you would like to live in: What insights do these answers give me about the direction I would like my life to take? As a child, what did you most want to give to the world? As a child, what situation in the world most hurt, disturbed, or upset you? What did you want to do about it? When you were a child, what did you most love to do? If you could wave a magic wand, and the world would instantly be the way you want it to be, how would it be different What insights do the answers to these questions give you? What situation in the world, in your nation, or in your community do you notice yourself complaining about the most? “Somebody really ought to do something about…”? How could you ultimately be most effective in working on these problems? “If I were to take responsibility to do something about this, I would” What elements of human suffering speak to your heart? After reviewing what you have written above, ask yourself “What insights do my answers give me about the direction I would like my life to take? Now imagine yourself on your deathbed. Imagine that you feel at peace with the world and ready to pass on. You are surrounded by your friends and family. You feel as though you have completed or accomplished what you came here to do in this life. What do you consider to have been your most important accomplishments? More than anything, what do you want the message of your life to have been when all is said and done? How could you best exemplify this? Your philosophy of life: If you could share one bit of wisdom with the whole world, what would it be? Is there anything you would be willing to put it all on the line for? If so, what? What has been the most important lesson you have learned in your life? Why was it the most important? Briefly, what is the basic philosophy of your life? Personal bill of rights and responsibilities: what you will and will not tolerate: of yourself and others Imagine that you have been told you have 5 years to live. In terms of your work life, what is it that you most want to accomplish in your reminding years? Instant recall: Recall times when you have been most creative: These are times when you created something (an event, a thing, a product, a system) Recall times when you have been most committed. These are times when you were deeply involved, emotionally co0mmitted, and determined to persist in spite of all obstacles Recall times when you were most decisive. These are times when yo knew exactly what to do. You know you were right, and you acted deliberately and confidently, perhaps even in spite of the doubt and objections of others Recall a time when everyone said you couldn’t do it, but you knew you could, and you did it anyway. What was it? How did it feel? Recall times when you have been so absorbed in what you were doing that you hardly noticed the time. What were you doing? What do you consider the greatest accomplishments of your life? Why? What is the most exciting thing you have done in your life? Why? When have you taken the strongest stand in your life? What were you standing for? Review your answers to the question above with a view toward what they might suggest to you about your life’s work. Look for patterns, redundancies, events that you repeatedly recalled. What insights do you answers suggest? Look at the list of values on page 196 from Zen and the Art of Making a Living worksheets.. Put a check in front of those that are most important to you. Check no more than ten (you can also look at the values list from your Nonviolent Communication worksheets you received). Which values do most characterize your life? Overall, which values are most important to you in your life? Prioritize your top values and list them below. Then, define each of these values in terms of its significance and meaning to you: Your mission statement: Review all your answers above, then write your mission statement: “What am I here to do on this earth” Now review what you have written, and write a condensed Mission statement: State the mission of your life in no more than two sentences: Tapping into what you enjoy: What do you enjoy most about your current work? (even if you dislike most of it, there may be one feature that you enjoy) What do you most enjoy doing when you’re not working (Hobbies, recreational interests, etc.) What do you most enjoy learning about? What do you most enjoy making (What do you enjoy as a beginning-to-end process?) If you were financially independent and money was not a factor, what kind of work would you do? Take the talent quiz (p. 224 from the handout Zen and the Art of Making a Living): Rank each of the following talents on a scale to one to ten Take the personal strength quiz (p. 228 on the handout): What are your five strongest character traits or personal qualities? Would you add any to the list in the worksheet that are more descriptive of you?

 The reoccurring research question is how should programs be approached to provide value, in other words how can organizations leverage the strategic value while recognizing and acknowledging the organizational context. How can we, as manager, help the organizations we work for build a business case that brings forward the value of these efforts from an employee engagement perspective?

Question 1.

The reoccurring research question is how should programs be approached to provide value, in other words how can organizations leverage the strategic value while recognizing and acknowledging the organizational context. How can we, as manager, help the organizations we work for build a business case that brings forward the value of these efforts from an employee engagement perspective?

Question 2. Many companies say that their employees are their most valuable asset, but not all of them live up to this blanket statement. One of the best ways to measure their accuracy is to look at their actual corporate culture and see if it lives up to this or if they are just words. Flamholtz and Randle say that corporate culture is not just an asset but a strategic asset that give corporate advantage, and can be the core of a business model.(Flamholtz, E. & Randle, Y, 2012) Culture is the values, beliefs and norms that influence how employees behave. While some negative cultures can provide short term advantages, such as bonuses for cut throat behavior, long term advantage comes from positive corporate cultures. Positive cultures create strategic assets when they create competitive advantages and are sustainable. Starbucks can credit this when people say “let’s go to Starbucks” verses “let’s go get coffee.” (Flamholtz, E. & Randle, Y, 2012) Successfully using culture as a competitive advantage often involves utilizing the same products that competitors do but having employees who enjoy their jobs, often that feeling can be felt by consumers. Examples are Starbucks who have access to the same beans their competitors do, and South West Airlines who fly the same Boeing planes as other airlines. Culture gaps are when corporations say they value the employees but surveys show employees do not feel embraced by the sentiment, and that the organization is not consistent with the stated culture (Flamholtz, E. & Randle, Y, 2012). An example of this is in March, for Corrections Pride month, for one month corrections staff has posters telling them how they are appreciated, but for the other 11 months of the year rarely ever hear a word of encouragement. How can organizations maximize and synchronize the performance goals of the organization with those of the individual performer?

Question 3. When creating a strategy for a company, there are 10 basic managerial tasks that are needed no matter what the situation (Thompson, Peteraf, Gamble, & Strickland, 2015, p. 288). Two of these tasks are staffing the organization with managers and employees capable of executing the strategy well, and instill a corporate culture that promotes good strategy execution. Staffing Ensuring the correct staff is in place will both help a struggling company improve and help a good company become better. As Clark (2013) points out, many businesses place top leaders in struggling departments to help improve their performance, and when a school district decided to use this model, almost all of the 24 low-performing participating schools were turned around proving that this strategy is a good one (pp. 26-27). If one were to put mediocre managers and employees into positions that need to improve, then improvement cannot be expected to happen. In addition, while staffing may be an expensive thing to do, one could argue that the benefits in the long run are well worth the effort of finding top talent to put into the positions the organization needs to improve. Culture According to Thompson, et al., 2015), “corporate culture refers to the shared values, ingrained attitudes, and company traditions that determine norms of behavior, accepted work practices, and styles of operating” (p. 343). If a manager or employee does not fit with the culture, then they will most likely hinder the organization’s effort to implement a strategic plan. Another point to make about organizational culture is when a strategic plan requires a cultural change. Keuning (2008) states that when a strategic plan requires cultural change, management must be alive to the fact that they need to look for ways to encourage staff to adjust their values and beliefs (as cited in Mwangu, Olyao, & Simuyu, 2015, p. 200). Ensuring the organizational culture is taken into account when creating a strategic plan, will help ensure that the strategic plan is implemented the way the organizations wants and will not cause problems with the culture and the employees. What analysis will likely show the leadership team where deficiencies exist that may hinder their strategic efforts?

Question 4. A key to Amazon’s corporate strategy is arguably their continued investment in data resources. As described in our text Amazon has utilized its expertise in data management not only to grow their own e-commerce efforts, but to also aid third party companies in their sales. Amazon may have had a advantage in this realm due to their initial inception as an online corporation. Often retailers find themselves working backwards in this arena, where they began in brick and mortar storefronts and moved on line. This demonstrates that they may not have had the initial motives to store and use customer data to build their market share, they simply wanted to offer customers another means to buy their product. What in your opinion is the drawback in Amazon’s approach(s)?

Question 5. One of the first elements of Amazon’s corporate strategy discussed in the case study is that of utilizing big data. Amazon realized that storing information about its customers and building a database of it could help them market products in an individualized way creating more sales. Another element discussed is aiding other companies with big data by allowing partner sites to use its big data while maintaining their independent identity as a smaller store. Doing this, Amazon charged its partners a fixed fee as well as commission. Departing from the case study, and expanding on the information given, one of the key strategies for the company was around developing a core culture for employees and that they have key leadership principles that are followed and used in everything the company does. In addition, she mentioned that the single most important thing anyone from Amazon would tell you is that in everything they do, the customer experience is their number one priority. Getting in on the online retailer industry early seems to have been Amazon’s biggest key in being successful. Developing both a culture in which the employees are motivated to make the customers happy, and a place where customers can easily find any number of products they are searching for and get them delivered quickly are also keys to their strategy execution. By following the 5 components of the Big Data Process, Amazon ensures that any information they share with other companies is accurate and validated so that when the other company uses it, they are satisfied with the partnership they have created with Amazon. If Amazon weren’t as careful with the information collected, other companies would not want to partner with them, and this would not be a successful strategy for Amazon. Other than Amazon’s ability to get into the e-commerce business early. What else do you think enabled Amazon to focus on their ability to provide excellent customer service and a significant product base from the internet sales perspective? The attached document is reference for questions 6-8

Question 6. In reference to the current environment at Tucker Knox it would be very difficult for an internal practitioner to have any significant impact due to Howards scope of influence and his ability to use others within the company to achieve his self serving goals. With so much influence centralized in Howards sphere it would be difficult to make any real change without support from both Larry and Jack. CEO Larry Henderson has worked closely with Howard and likes his aggressive management style. Howard already has many responsibilities and more to come with developing and overseeing the new department. But it seems Howards focus was about keeping rivals like Matt Jackson in check rather than overseeing his responsibilities as the director of manufacture engineering. Another point of friction is Howards inability to accept change and his dawdling nature to delegate or relinquish authority. According to Andersson (2015) change is associated with terms like force and friction, often times groups or individual fear change due to the unknown or the thought of losing status or influence. In an attempt to limit Howards influence Jake Donaldson splits Howards machine design team into two teams and assigned Matt Jackson, Howard’s rival to manage the new team. Due to Howards assertive nature rather than staying focused on his responsibilities and filling the empty management positions of the teams he oversees. Howard employs Ed to help develop and present information in order to reunite his machine design team. In the end again Howard is successful in achieving his self serving goals. Although the plan that Howard and Ed present is persuasive the split of the team was still in its infancy and with more time the split may have been beneficial to the company. What are other assessments into the organization’s strengths and weaknesses that move past the internalization focus that achieve positive managerial leadership?

Question 7. In reference to the Case Study Problems A. Macro Tucker has certain management that wants to ensure their working environment is ideal based on who they strategically place in their circle. They also have staff that uses place staff I certain positions that may not be qualified as a means of a way to get them to do what they wanted. B. Micro Larry is not stepping up and recognizing the team for their value and hard work when positions are being changed thus pushing some key players to the back such as Ed. ll. Causes The company appears to doing well and they have future plans that will continue to make the business thrive. Although they may appear to work well together it seems to be more from manipulation rather than earned effort. III. Systems Affected Ultimately the restructuring and some of the decisions that were made will cause them to lose someone or others that have played key roles in the company by slighting their efforts or position for others that can be molded to their liking. IV. Alternatives The changes are good but the way it was done especially reassigning Ed to a department and once he was finished building it up advising him he had to find another job within the company or else was not a good business move. V. Recommendations I understand that there are members of the team that are stronger in certain areas than other yet collectively they could complement each other. Where one lacked in an area and as the other they could train in each area so that they could have the dream team. It may work best for some to be able to have those that will jump when they say jump but it seems some in certain positions are using them for their benefit. They should do cross training with everyone so that in the event someone is needed they have available staff rather than rely on a specific person. So do you think that there is an underlying lack of motivation here not only in the employees but also in the management? Do you think that a lack of motivation could be a problem? What are the defining variables that could be causing it? Could it be that everyone’s own desires and organizational silos of management influence their perception and analyses of problem areas?

Question 8. Tucker Knox Corporation’s organizational goal is to maintain their sales volume at number one. In addition, the organization’s CEO (Larry Henderson) has set three objects as follows: to compete globally, to maintain/build successful U.S. and global facilities, and to ensure their corporate office remains financially able to operate in the United States as opposed to abroad. One big factor that has stood in their way is the fact that proprietary parts are what make each organization manufacturing automotive breaking systems successful. As a result, costs can be prohibitive. To alleviate this factor, Howard Watson, Director of Manufacturing Engineering, proposed a department specifically to deal with the proprietary aspect of the system. Howard went on to collaborate with Larry Henderson (CEO) to design said department. Ed Leonard was brought own gradually (progressing step by step) by Howard to manage this department. Early in Ed’s tenure, Jack Donaldson (Howard’s direct boss) split up Howard’s team in order to lessen his authority. Howard used Ed’s knowledge and experience to counter this move, which placed Ed in an awkward position with upper management, specifically Jack Donaldson who would likely take over as CEO upon Larry Henderson’s retirement. Nevertheless, the result being Ed Leonard, a profitable member, looking to leave the organization. How did this come about, Ed contemplated in the case. First of all, The CEO appears to be a collaborative individual and effective leader. In addition, Howard Watson appears to a collaborative leader as well; however, in placing Ed in an awkward position he has jeopardized the organization as Ed is now seriously contemplating resigning. Jack Donaldson played the most damaging role in this scenario however by not collaborating with Howard on the decision to break up the department. Decisions such as this should be made only after getting input from all involved. What are if any, the underlying lack of motivation here not only in the employees but also in the management? Do you think that a lack of motivation could be a problem

(1)Suppose you are working as a financial market analyst and you are put in charge of investigating bond markets. One of the primary metrics you study is the yield curve. Analyzing changes in the yield curve in Treasury bond markets over the last two quarters you notice that the curve has been rotating upwards (increasing the slope). Explain in detail what this might be telling you about the macroeconomy. Be sure to make it perfectly clear in your answer you know all of the basic terms needed and, also, make sure to fully elaborate on the implications. (30 points)

Money and Banking

Please type up your answers for each of these six questions. You are to write your answers. Plagiarism from other students or other sources is prohibited.

(1)Suppose you are working as a financial market analyst and you are put in charge of investigating bond markets. One of the primary metrics you study is the yield curve. Analyzing changes in the yield curve in Treasury bond markets over the last two quarters you notice that the curve has been rotating upwards (increasing the slope). Explain in detail what this might be telling you about the macroeconomy. Be sure to make it perfectly clear in your answer you know all of the basic terms needed and, also, make sure to fully elaborate on the implications. (30 points)


(2)States differ substantially in their bankruptcy laws. Dimensions in which they differ include the amount of wealth in, for example, housing can be kept by the person entering bankruptcy. Laws also differ in the amount of time a bankruptcy affects credit reports. How might bankruptcy laws affect differences in home mortgage interest rates home buyers can obtain? Explain using material presented in class showing off your ability to apply economic reasoning.          (15 points)

Do either 3A, 3B, or 3C – please, only one though!


(3A)Use the decomposition of the effect of a price change (i.e., substitution effect and income effect) to explain why the demand for bonds is downward sloping. Be sure to use specific examples in your answer. (10 points)


(3B)Explain the basic economics of risk preferences and how they affect demand in bond markets. Be sure to fully explain the concept and provide a specific example. (10 points)


(3C)Explain what is hyperbolic discounting and how it might affect financial markets. Be sure to fully explain the concept and provide a specific example. (10 points)


(4)Credit rating agencies provide a service to financial markets. They evaluate the financial position of a firm and rate the likelihood that the firm will be able to pay back the debt it incurs (in contrast to investment managers who are searching for future profitability of a company). The agencies provide ratings for each company. Explain how might a change in a credit rating agency’s rating of a company affect the cost of its financing (of, say, future growth)?             (15 points)


(5)Explain, in sufficient detail, how open market operations can be used to conduct monetary policy. Be sure to fully elaborate so that it is obvious you know the details. (20 points)


(6)Compare and contrast the discount rate and the federal funds rate. (10 points)

The Influence of Variety in Food Access across Race, Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Background in the Development and Progression of Diabetes

The Influence of Variety in Food Access across Race, Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Background in the Development and Progression of Diabetes

The incidence of diabetes has been reported across populations of all ethnic, race, and socioeconomic backgrounds. This paper seeks to explore the role of differences in food access across the dimensions of race, ethnicity and socioeconomic in terms of influencing the development and progression of diabetes.


In this section of the paper, a brief discussion of the background of diabetes is offered. The main subsections covered in this section of the paper include the background of the research, the questions being addressed by the research, the general problem of being explored by the study, the specific concerns upon which the study is focused, the research purpose, as well as the study hypotheses. Diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases that have been traditionally associated with changes in lifestyles.

General Problem Statement

The general problem is that there has been a rapid increase in the incidence of diabetes across various population subgroups in the United States. In particular, the incidence of diabetes type 2 has been prevalent among the population segments generally categorized as belonging to the low socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic status has been linked to a higher prevalence rate for diabetes and greater exposure to risks associated with diabetes. (Seligman et al, 2012; Wang et al, 2007). Other studies have linked the development and progression of diabetes to differences in variety food access across the dimensions of race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic backgrounds. While there exist many factors and aspects of poverty that lead to the predisposition of adults to the incidence of diabetes, a greater number of factors predisposing individuals to the development and progression of diabetes  have not been fully explored.

Limited access to food variety, or food insecurity, has been put forward as one of the fundamental means through which the incidence of poverty across race, ethnicity and socioeconomic backgrounds, can serve to predispose individuals of low socioeconomic status to inefficient methods of diabetes control (Seligman & Schillinger, 2010). Limited access to food variety occurs because an individual an individual is unable to afford the food, and consequently risks going hungry. It is visible in environments in which the individuals are unable to access foods that are generally considered as nutritionally safe, or the individual is unable to obtain food in socially acceptable ways, and thus resorts to unhealthy coping strategies or emergency food supplies. A study conducted in the United States in 2010, found 14.5 percent of households, representing approximately 32 million of the adult population (Coleman-Jensen et al, 2011).

Specific Problem Statement

The specific problem is that diabetes continues to cause deaths across the divide, affecting individuals from all ethnicities, races as well as all socioeconomic status. But the recent trends in the disease have linked it to food variety access. A study conducted by the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) in the United States, based on a nationally representative random sample of low income adults, discovered that among diabetes patients surveyed, 69 percent of food-insecure as well as 49 percent of food-secure participant adults could not achieve a hemoglobin A1c less than or equal 7 percent (Seligman et al, 2010). Among children in household with low access to food variety, the studies have reported even higher hemoglobin A1c compared to children from food-secure households.  However, the correlation between food variety access across ethnicity, race and socioeconomic background has not been adequately evaluated in clinical trials of adult populations with the diabetes condition.

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this research is to explore the existence of a relationship between a variety in food access across race, ethnicity as well as socioeconomic background and the development and progression of diabetes. This paper seeks to explore the role differences in food access across ethnicity, race, as well as socioeconomic background in influencing the development and progression of diabetes, so as to enable medical practitioners involved in the management of the condition to have an insight that will enable them model their treatment of the condition. By exploring the development and progression of the disease from this angle, the insights gathered will also be instrumental in terms of their general contribution towards the scientific body of knowledge regarding diabetes.

Research Questions

            In order to achieve its goals, the research will address the following research questions.

RQ1: Do differences in food access across ethnicity increase the condition of diabetes?

RQ2: Do difference in variety food access across race increase the risk of developing diabetes?

RQ3: Do differences in variety food access across socioeconomic backgrounds increase the risk diabetes condition?


H10: There is no correlation between variety in food access across ethnicity and the development and progression of diabetes.

H1A: There is correlation between variety in food access across ethnicity and the development and progression of diabetes.

H20: There is no correlation between variety in food access across race and the development and progression of diabetes.

H2A: There is correlation between variety in food access across race and the development and progression of diabetes.

H30: There is no correlation between variety in food access across socioeconomic background and the development and progression of diabetes.

H3A: There is correlation between variety in food access across socioeconomic background and the development and progression of diabetes.




The term nationalism is an ideological concept which refers to the belief that individuals are bound together in a common purpose and a common destiny by ties of language, culture, and history. As an ideology, the origins of nationalism can be traced back to the 19th century industrial revolution that changed brought about rapid changes in social, economic and political spheres of life. It is also during this time that this concept became the strongest of the ideologies (including socialism, anarchism, and romanticism, and liberalism) to spread from industrial Europe to the rest of the world (Wardsworth, 2014).

Nationalism has also been linked to another political ideology called romanticism .This ideology laid emphasis on emotional intensity and authenticity while undervaluing the rationalism and formality that have attributed to the Enlightenment era, and focusing majorly on nature as a response against the gritty, crowded conditions of cities and factories. Such feelings have been seen in other spheres of life such as poetry, and painting that only relied upon aesthetic value (Wordsworth, 2014).

Nationalism has also been regarded as the most powerful political ideology that was the product of the Industrial Revolution. Nationalists’ agenda was to construct new cultural and historical heritages for peoples which had no nation-states through which they could be aptly represented. Nationalism provides a rallying philosophical construct through which people that share a common language, ethnicity identity as well as cultural norms could be united towards their realization of a shared destiny.

Nationalistic emotional attachments have been aroused by political leaders in order to unite various groups within the state boundaries as a patriotic showcase of unity against external aggression or threats to state sovereignty. For example, nationalists in Europe brought together members of language groups, such as Italians with a variety of dialects and who, like Germans, arguing that such divisions were mere artificial political boundaries. Furthermore, feelings of emotional attachment to one’s nationality were also used by political leadership who sought to separate their group from multinational empires, such as Poles from Russia, Greeks from the Ottoman Empire, and Hungarians from Austria. Nationalists laid a major emphasis on the interests of their particular group (Wordsworth, 2014).